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Psychological and sociological theories as to why people develop jobs with substances and their application vary ; some theories relate to genetic sciences others to the environment. Most Theories focus on peculiar characteristics of the rate of drug usage: Illicit drugs, Alcoholism, Addiction, The drug experience-how and why people use them, Persons, Society, Career.

Social acquisition is merely one of the theories that try to explicate substance abuse. A grade of difference is found in society ‘s attitudes and behaviors. Learning depends on precedence, strength, clip and involves pattern, motive, attitude, and significance. ( Edwin Sutherland 1939 ) .

Diffrent theories on behavior can assist us to understand why and how some people have substance jobs, for illustration,

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Behavioral theories: behavioral psychological science or behaviorism is based on all behaviors being learned through conditioning. Cognitive theories: focal point on internal ideas such as motive, attending, determination devising and job resolution. Developmental theories: believe about acquisition, development and growing. Humanist theories: expression at human existences being basicaly good. Personality theories: looks at the behavior, ideas and feelings that make each individual an person. Social psycology theories: focal point on explicating societal behaviors. ( Psychologist World )

Using these theories can help in understanding why some people depend on substances.

Looking at different countries of society you start to see disadvantaged countries, poorness, unemployment, equal force per unit area, ennui or force per unit areas from work, household history or pre-dispositions to substance jobs every bit good as the environment that a individual is brought up in could act upon person ‘s substance dependence.

If a kid is born to a female parent that is dependent on drugs or intoxicant so the kid may be born with a sensitivity to that specific dependence, if a kid is raised in an country where drugs and intoxicant are freely available so they could be pressured by equals to devour the available substances. This is seen normally among adolescents when they start to experiment with new things and where equal force per unit area to be the same as everyone else can lure a immature individual to get down taking a substance to delight or keep relationships with equals. This can take to long term dependence particularly if the kid has a sensitivity to substances or has an habit-forming inclination, doing the rhythm to go on. Society ‘s attitude towards intoxicant jobs has been mostly accepted as the “ Scots manner of life ” harmonizing to the 2004 Scottish societal attitudes study carried out by the Scots authorities.

Cultural Attitudes

“ Every individual in Scotland has a portion to play in reexamining their attitudes and behaviors, and lending to the argument about how we jointly address these jobs. ” ( Carolyn Churchill, 2010 )

Alcohol jobs are estimated to be Scotland around ?3.56 billion per twelvemonth in NHS, societal work, constabulary, exigency services, and the wider economic and human costs. Alcohol abuse non merely affects the wellness and well-being of single drinkers, but besides have a major impact on household relationships, the wider communities every bit good every bit society as a whole. ( Alcohol Focus Scotland )

Through utilizing these services society is seeking to cut down the sum of substance maltreatment within Scotland. This is nevertheless an acclivitous battle and until attitudes change it will be left to the medical profession, constabulary and exigency services and the societal work section to fire fight the jobs within Scots communities. Social justness is concerned with equality of justness, non merely in the tribunals, but in society as a whole. This thought stresses that people have to hold equal rights and chances from the poorest to the wealthiest in society deserve equal opportunities and chances. New statute law may help the job nevertheless it is the attitude of the person that will finally get down to alter the attitude of society as a whole.

Criminal Justice jurisprudence changed in 2010 this gave tribunals more flexibleness in the manner they were able to condemn people that passed through the tribunals. This now allows tribunals to look at ways of reparation without utilizing short term imprisonments.

Statutory Orders are non-custodial sentencing options available to all Sheriff Courts in Scotland. This allows greater pick of sentance for the sherriff. Using Social Enquiry Reports, Community Service Orders, Probation Orders ( including those with a demand of unpaid work ) , Probation Orders with a Requirement of Unpaid Work, Supervised Attendance Orders, Drug Treatment and Testing Orders, Restriction of Liberty Orders, Statutory Throughcare, Voluntary Assistance and the Throughcare Addiction Service, Home Circumstances Reports, Diversion from Prosecution and Bail Information, the sheriff can now look at the offense and the individuals background and use a decision/sentence that is proportionate to the offense. ( Criminal Justice Act 2010 )

Youth justness is closely connected to acquiring it Right for Every Child which underpins the principals of bureaus involved with immature people. Geting It Right For Every Child is the Government ‘s policy for turn toing the demands of all kids – it provides the model within which public bureaus can work better together with a focal point on bettering results for kids. Constructing the capacity of households and communities to prosecute in activities that support kids is cardinal to this attack. The Early Old ages and Early Intervention Framework being developed jointly by the Scots Government and CoSLA will guarantee a strong focal point on what needs to be done to guarantee that all kids, including the most vulnerable, acquire the best start in life. ( The Road to Recovery )

Youth justness is about step ining at an appropriate clip with a program and a good model for the intercession. Multi bureau co-operation is needed for this to work efficaciously utilizing a scope of processs and patterns covering with immature people who are seting themselves and/or others at hazard or offending.

Scotland ‘s kids ‘s hearing system was initiated by a alteration to the Social Work ( Scotland ) Act 1968 and is now portion of the Children ( Scotland ) Act 1995 and is at the bosom of young person justness. Since its debut kids under the age of 16 are merely considered for prosecution in an grownup tribunal if the offense they have committed is deemed to be really serious such as slaying. The hearing system trades with kids and immature people who are in demand of attention and protection every bit good as those who have displayed offending behaviors.

Youth justness traditionally worked with kids from the age of 8 to 16 but has recognised the demand to get down preventive work with younger kids to back up them in the passage from kids to grownups in a more positive manner. In recognizing this young person justness introduced several preventive steps including renewing justness in schools, safer school partnership, and positive activities for immature people, targeted youth support and targeted mental wellness in schools. The authorities besides introduced the Youth Justice Re-investment Pathfinder Initiative this allows local governments to move as “ Scouts ” to develop ways locally of cut downing piquing and re-offending without a tutelary sentence.

Assessing, Planning and Intervention

Geting It Right for Every Child ( GIRFEC ) is a good topographic point to get down when measuring the demands of kids and their households. GIRFEC takes a holistic position of the kid GIRFEC has an integrated, common attack to garnering information about a kid ‘s wellbeing. It uses three tools, the Well-being Indexs: identify record and portion concerns, and take action as appropriate My World Triangle: Triangle helps practicians gather relevant information to look at the strengths and force per unit areas impacting a kid and their household. The trigon is intentionally presented from the kid ‘s position to reenforce the Geting it right for every kid rule that kids should ever be at the Centre. The Resilience Matrix: aid organise and analyse information.

All kids can be: Confident Persons, Effective Contributors, Responsible Citizens and Successful Learners. To accomplish this all kids need to be Safe, Healthy, Active, Nurtured, Achieving, Respected and Responsible and Included. These are known as the ‘wellbeing indexs ‘ and are remembered by the acronym S.H.A.N.A.R.I. ( GIRFEC )

Making a GIRFEC appraisal takes a multi bureau position where societal work, wellness and instruction professionals have a portion to play in the appraisal procedure. An appraisal should be appropriate, proportionate and timely, one time an appraisal is done a more holistic image about the demands of the kids and the household has been obtained leting the practician to be after a class of action for the kids and household. Through careful planning schemes and intercessions can be put into topographic point to let the kids and household to travel frontward. All intercessions and schemes need to be consensual so the whole household demand to be involved in the planning and determinations made to guarantee their committedness to the action program. Intervention schemes will change depending on the household and the jobs they are confronting. Using grounds based pattern the best relevant information based on the best patterns in the field of societal work, wellness and instruction will accomplish the most desirable result for the household, this besides allows for the appraisal and intercession to be crystalline and informed.

The Key Capabilities papers has four headers which together form the Key Capabilities in Child Care and Protection:

Effective Communication, The Scottish Social Services Council ( SSSC ) codifications of pattern describe pass oning as being done in an appropriate, unfastened, accurate and straightforward manner. Knowledge and Understanding, this includes maintaining up to day of the month with relevant statute law, being accountable, utilizing professional judgement and cognition based societal work pattern, working efficaciously as a professional. Professional Assurance and Competence include, transporting out responsibilities accountably, utilizing professional judgement and cognition based societal work pattern. Valuess and Ethical Practice, Work at all times within the professional codifications of pattern, ethical rules and service criterions that underpin high quality societal work pattern, by using these to any appraisals or intercessions it is possible for the practician to take an non-judgemental and anti discriminatory attack to the clients and there issues.

Appraisal of the Key Issues Affecting this Family

Dean has already been involved in a old incident affecting intoxicant where he had assaulted Sandra and her brother in forepart of the kids while he was under the influence of intoxicant. Dean has been working with the societal worker in an effort to rectify his relationship with Sandra. Through acquiring rummy and losing control he has committed a serious offense Dean needs aid with his debatable imbibing, aggression and choler direction as his actions will hold a permanent consequence on the kids and Sandra.

Resilience varies from kid to child some kids do non develop any jobs either as kids or grownups. Families being together in harmoniousness and good societal webs are merely two of the ways a kid builds their resiliency nevertheless the issues faced by Nathan and Jordan are legion, they may hold to take on duties far beyond their old ages which effects their instruction and peer relationships, they may endure physical and psychological wellness issues, domestic force and kid maltreatment, there are concerns sing anti societal behavior increasing the hazard of aggression towards others, hyperactivity or behavior upsets, emotional and attachment upsets and disregard. Constructing resiliency in this state of affairs will necessitate a good degree of ego regard, assurance and self efficiency every bit good as the ability to set to alter and job resolution accomplishments. There are deductions for the kids ‘s safety and public assistance which may go a child protection issue.

Dean and Sandra are in crisis which would connote that a short piece of intercession work could be used to rectify this state of affairs. Working with Dean and Sandra on new accomplishments to avoid this type of state of affairs and puting accomplishable ends and back uping them they should be able to go on to work on their relationship as they were before this incident happened. ( PSYCH )

A longer term intercession such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy may be a utile tool in this state of affairs, by acquiring Dean to believe about his ain ideas, emotions, physical feelings and actions could help Dean at looking at his behavior ideas and feelings otherwise and seek to take a more positive expression at how he can cover with similar state of affairss in the hereafter. This is about acquiring Dean to see state of affairss in a more positive manner therefore being able to manage a state of affairs in a more positive manner. This work is non a speedy hole for Dean ‘s behavior and he needs to desire to take portion for it to work. Sandra should be included in portion of this therapy as she seems to be one of the objects of Dean ‘s choler as does Sandra ‘s brother. ( ibid )

Dean would besides profit from working with people who have experience in covering with substance related jobs such as his GP or a voluntary group. Dean would hold to be in understanding with these schemes for them to work. Giving Dean several options allows him to take charge of the state of affairs and enables him to travel frontward at a gait he is comfy with.

If Dean is working voluntarily towards deciding his intoxicant, choler and aggression issues it may assist his pending instance when it goes to tribunal.

The impact on the household will be minimized if Dean and Sandra are working together to undertake this state of affairs and work through the jobs they are now confronting as a household unit back uping each other and the kids to a reciprocally good result for the household and wider society.

Case Study

The function of the societal worker in condemnable justness

From 1 February 2011 a Social Enquiry Report will be called a Criminal Justice Social Work Report. When the tribunal wants to cognize more about an accused individuals background, they will inquire for a condemnable justness societal work study. If the individual is likely to be traveling to imprison for the first clip, the tribunal must hold a study. The study provides the tribunal with the information needed to make up one’s mind the best manner to cover with the offender.A AA condemnable justness societal work reportA is written by a societal worker, who contacts you by missive and asks you to go to an interview.A The societal worker will inquire for information about your, current fortunes, personal and societal history, old offenses, and current or old supervising. This study helps to inform the tribunal of what type of sentence would be most appropriate.

In Scotland statutory societal work services to wrongdoers and their households is provided by the local governments societal work section. They provide a scope of services in the condemnable justness system including condemnable justness societal work studies, tribunal societal work services, probation – now community orders with demands and community payback orders with an wrongdoer supervising demand or with other conditions attached, community service orders – now community payback orders with both offender supervising requierment and unpaid work demand. ( Paterson and graves )

A condemnable Justice Social Work Report ( CJSW ) is done to enable a more in-depth expression at Dean ‘s jobs with piquing behaviors. This is necessary to accomplish the best result for Dean, his household and society. The study would necessitate to include:

Current offense: Assault and Breach of the Peace.

Outstanding Matters: Dean and Sandra are still working with the societal worker to construct on their strengths with a position to rehabilitating the relationship.

Footing of Report/Verification of Information

Home interviews, with inside informations of who was present i.e. Dean and Sandra

Office interviews, with Dean

Extra information, confirmation of any other information gathered pertaining to the instance.

Verified Sources of Information

Such as:

Condemnable history cheque


Departmental information/service records

Summery of grounds

Piquing analysis-current

Detailss of the assault and breach of the piece i.e. where the offense took topographic point? When it took topographic point? Who was involved? Was their intoxicant involved? Level of duty for the offense: Did Dean take duty for the offense? What was the degree of planning-did Dean program to perpetrate the offense? Dean ‘s attitude and penetration into the offense and does he recognize the impact the offense has had on Sandra, her brother, the kids and the other people that witnessed the offense.

Piquing analysis-previous

This should look at all Deans old piquing behaviors to acquire a clearer image of how debatable his imbibing job and subsequent violent behaviors have become. Looking at how his old behaviors have been dealt with will assist to inform the tribunal of what has worked and what has non.

Personal and societal fortunes

This will look at Dean ‘s relationships, background, instruction, employment, populating agreements, fundss, wellness and societal life every bit good as his relationship with intoxicant and force. This will give the tribunal a clearer image of Dean ‘s capacity to pay a all right, have a tutelary sentence or take on unpaid work. It will besides inform the tribunal of the mental and physical status.

Hazard Appraisal

Hazard appraisal tools – based on the nationally used counsel and model. Multi-agency Public Protection Arrangements ( MAPPA ‘s ) introduced to Scotland in 2006 which works on three degrees.

Degree 1 – ordinary hazard direction – depression or medium hazard, chiefly managed by one bureau ;

Degree 2 – local inter-agency hazard direction – necessitating active engagement of more than one bureau, with MAPPA meetings chaired by person at service director or head inspector degree ;

Degree 3 – MAPP Panels – for the ‘critical few ‘ high or really high hazard wrongdoers, chaired at senior director or main superintendent degree. These panels require close cooperation at a senior degree because of the hazard involved or because of possible media and public involvement in a specific instance. ( The Scots Government )

The hazard appraisal would include hazard factors such as intoxicant, hapless determination devising accomplishments, hapless cognitive map and exposure in society every bit good as the positive influences of household. The tribunal should besides take into history the hazard of force towards the kids and Sandra every bit good as the kids ‘s present fortunes i.e. instruction, wellness – both physical and emotional, neglect, verbal and emotional maltreatment towards both Sandra and the kids, both Dean and Sandra ‘s parenting accomplishments and restrictions should be taken into history. What kind of adjustment are Sandra and the kids remaining in and are Dean and Sandra life together where the hazard of such intoxicant related violent out explosions could be more frequent. The support from other household members and friends instead than professionals should besides be taken into history as this assists the kids to construct on their resiliency and should be promoted. Good educational experiences self efficiency and chances to lend to household and community by taking on valued functions should besides be taken into the graduated table of the hazard appraisal. ( Barnardos )

After making an appraisal and due to the offenses Dean has committed I am of the sentiment that it would non be good for Dean to be given a tutelary sentence or monitory punishment at this clip, nevertheless in my sentiment a:

Community Order

With: Programme Requirement,

Alcohol Treatment Requirement and

Conduct demand

With peculiar enfaces on:

Alcohol and its impact on Dean ‘s behavior and his household,

Anger direction – Cognitive behavioral therapy,

Family guidance,

Conduct demand ( antecedently a probation order ) would be good in this instance.

Conduct demand

If the tribunal feels that societal work aid and supervising may assist the individual avoid re-offending in the hereafter, a probation order ( now a Conduct Order ) can be imposed.

Probation orders are made under subdivision 22.8A of the Criminal Procedure ( Scotland ) Act 1995 as amended by the condemnable process ( legal aid, detainment and entreaties ) ( Scotland ) act 2010. All probation orders have the undermentioned legal demands: the order requires the wrongdoer to take duty for being of good behavior ; to conform to the waies of the Supervising Officer ; and to inform the Oversing Officer at one time of any alteration in abode or employment ; and the Oversing Officer to confront the wrongdoer with his/her duty to populate within the jurisprudence ; to oversee the wrongdoer ‘s conformity with the demands of the order, and to supply the wrongdoer with advice, counsel, and aid.

By perpetrating an offense, once more, the societal worker has to inform the tribunal by subjecting a breach of probation study. The tribunal can condemn the wrongdoer for the new offense and for the original offense they were placed on probation for. The tribunal can let the probation order to go on, with or without alterations. ( Condemnable Procedure ( Scotland ) Act 1995 )

This will let Dean to turn to his imbibing issues every bit good as work on his offending and violent behavior. It will besides let the societal worker to go on to work with the household and Dean on a household therapy programme. Dean should take portion in cognitive behavioral therapy this will let Dean to work on his choler issues and see his triggers from a different position. I would besides urge that Dean has a behavior demand placed on him to assist discourage him from any more drink related violent effusions in the hereafter.

Discoursing these options with Dean and acquiring his input to these recommendations before his instance was heard in tribunal would intend he is in understanding with them and realises he would necessitate to follow with such an order in order for it to be feasible. ( CJSW )

Action Plan

Regular planned and unplanned assignments after condemning will assist the on-going development of an action program, which should be shared and agreed with the person before the action program is finalised. The action program should be based on SMART rules i.e. Specific, Manageable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time Bound. The program should be recorded in instance files and stored suitably. Action plans should be reviewed at regular intervals. Reviews should be scheduled in conformity with the pre agreed supervising degrees or when there is a important alteration in fortunes or behavior of the individual being supervised. Pre determined ends will be in topographic point as will specific programmes and professionals to help Dean in his journey through intervention. Multi bureau engagement will intend that Dean is able to acquire the most appropriate aid when he needs it.

I will look at each action point to measure the best manner forward for Dean and the household.

1. Alcohol and its impact on Dean ‘s behavior and his household. Associating Dean in with one of the many intoxicant reding services available will help him to look at the impact his imbibing has had and continues to hold on the household. It will besides give him the support he needs to halt imbibing. Voluntary groups such as Alcohol Focus Scotland and/or intoxicant support that is run by the NHS may hold the best beginning of cognition for this undertaking.

2. Anger direction – Cognitive behavioral therapy ( CBT ) . This is non a speedy hole and will necessitate Dean to perpetrate to a programme of therapy that will last up to twenty hebdomads with hebdomadal Sessionss enduring one hr. CBT trades with the manner we process our ideas, emotions, physical feelings and actions. Once Dean has completed the choler direction class of CBT the household can be linked in to get down household therapy.


3. Family reding or household therapy can affect the whole of the household or merely portion of the household. The household healers can be any figure of wellness professionals. They may be societal workers, nurses, head-shrinkers, psychologists, or merely people who have been trained in the usage of one or more types of household therapy. This type of intervention can last anything from one twenty-four hours to several old ages depending on the deepness of the household jobs.

I will hold to beginning the relevant professional to take on the lead function in this.

4. Conduct demand, this will intend that Dean can non be in problem with the jurisprudence for a specific period of clip as determined by the tribunal. He will run into on a regular footing with his societal worker to discourse how he is come oning with the demands of his sentence. If he breaches his good behavior order he could be faced with a tutelary sentence or monitory mulct.

This program is working on the premise that Dean is a willing participant and wants to alter, if this is non the instance so the action program will non work and Dean will be back in tribunal confronting a more sever sentence. This program will besides necessitate Sandra and the kids to take part at a pre determined point.

The program besides outlines the other professionals needed to suit the procedure of Dean ‘s advancement in covering with his intoxicant and force jobs. Using a multi bureau attack will intend that the right professional is working with Dean, Sandra and the kids at the right point throughout his condemning interventions.

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