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It is normal human psychology to believe in what you e firsthand. Our land on the other hand is living a nightmare too. We may not be able to see the effects with clarity, but land is being polluted and abused constantly and we are unable to calculate the damages incurred. Land Pollution has come to become one of the serious concerns that we collectively battle. Land pollution, in other words, means degradation or destruction of earth’s surface and soil, directly or indirectly as a result of human activities.

Anthropogenic activities are conducted citing development, and the same affects the land drastically, we witness land pollution; by drastic we are offering to any activity that lessens the quality and/or productivity of the land as an ideal place for agriculture, forestation, construction etc. The degradation of land that could be used constructively in other words is land pollution. Land Pollution has led to a series of issues that we have come to realize in recent times, after decades of neglect.

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The increasing numbers of barren land plots and the decreasing numbers of forest cover is at an alarming ratio. Moreover the extension of cities and towns due to increasing population is leading to further exploitation of the land. Landfills and reclamations are Ewing planned and executed to meet the increased demand of lands. This leads to further deterioration of land, and pollution caused by the land fill contents. Also due to the lack of green cover, the land gets affected in several ways like soil erosion occurs washing away the fertile portions of the land.

Deforestation and soil erosion: Deforestation carried out to create dry lands is one of the major concerns. Land that is once converted into a dry or barren land can never be made fertile again, whatever the magnitude of assures taken to redeem it is. Land conversion, meaning the alteration or modification of the original properties of the land to make it use-worthy for a specific purpose is another major cause. This hampers the land immensely. Also there is a constant waste of land. Unused available land over the years turns barren; this land then cannot be used. So in search of more land, potent land is hunted and its indigenous state is compromised with. 2. Agricultural activities: With growing human population, demand for food has increased considerably. Farmers often use highly toxic fertilizers and pesticides to get id off insects, fungi and bacteria from their crops. However with the overuse of these chemicals, they result in contamination and poisoning of soil. 3. Mining activities: During extraction and mining activities, several land spaces are created beneath the surface.

We constant hear about land caving in; this is nothing but nature’s way of filling the spaces left out after mining or extraction activity. 4. Overcrowded landfills: Each household produces tones of garbage each year. Garbage like aluminum, plastic, paper, cloth, wood is collected and sent to the local recycling unit. Items that cannot be recycled become a part of the landfills that hampers the beauty of the city and cause land pollution. 5. Industrialization: Due to increase in demand for food, shelter and house, more goods are produced.

This resulted in creation of more waste that needs to be disposed of. To meet the demand of the growing population, more industries were developed which led to deforestation. Research and development paved the way for modern fertilizers and chemicals that were highly toxic and led to soil contamination. 6. Construction activities: Due to arbitration, large amount of construction activities are taking place which has resulted in large waste articles like wood, metal, bricks, plastic that can be seen by naked eyes outside any building or office which is under construction. 7.

Nuclear waste: Nuclear Plants can produce huge amount of energy through nuclear fission and fusion. The left over radioactive material contains harmful and toxic chemicals that can affect human health. They are dumped beneath the earth to avoid any casualty. 8. Sewage treatment: Large amount of solid waste is leftover once the sewage has been treated. The leftover material is sent to landfill site which end up in eluting the environment. Effects of Land Pollution 1 . Soil pollution: Soil pollution is another form of land pollution, where the upper layer of the soil is damaged.

This is caused by the overuse of chemical fertilizers, soil erosion caused by running water and other pest control measures; this leads to loss of fertile land for agriculture, forest cover, fodder patches for grazing etc. 2. Change in climate patterns: The effects of land pollution are very hazardous and can lead to the loss of ecosystems. When land is polluted, it directly or indirectly affects the climate patterns. . Environmental Impact: When deforestation is committed, the tree cover is compromised on. This leads to a steep imbalance in the rain cycle.

A disturbed rain cycle affects a lot of factors. To begin with, the green cover is reduced. Trees and plants help balance the atmosphere, without them we are subjected to various concerns like Global Warming, the greenhouse effect, irregular rainfall and flash floods among other imbalances. 4. Effect on human health: The land when contaminated with toxic chemicals and pesticides lead to problem of skin cancer and human respiratory system. The toxic chemicals can reach our body through foods and vegetables that we eat as they are grown in polluted soil. 5.

Effect on wildlife: The animal kingdom has suffered mostly in the past decades. They face a serious threat with regards to loss of habitat and natural environment. The constant human activity on land is leaving it polluted; forcing these species to move further away and adapt to new regions or die trying to adjust. Several species are pushed to the verge of extinction, due to no homeland. Other issues that we face include increased temperature, unseasonable weather activity, acid rains etc. The discharge of chemicals on land makes it dangerous for the ecosystem too.

These chemicals are consumed by the animals and plants and thereby make their way in the ecosystem. This process is called bio magnification and is a serious threat to the ecology. Solutions for Land Pollution 1. Make people aware about the concept of Reduce, Recycle and Reuse. 2. Reduce the use of pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural activities. 3. Avoid buying packages items as they will lead to garbage and end up in landfill site. 4. Ensure that you do not litter on the ground and do proper disposal of garbage. 5. Buy biodegradable products. 6.

Do Organic Gardening and eat organic food that will be grown without the use of pesticides. 7. Create dumping ground away from residential areas. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is a distinct practice from resource recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources.

All waste materials, whether they are solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive fall within the remit of waste management. Waste management practices can differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management of Nostradamus waste residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator subject to local, national or international authorities.

Throughout most of history, the amount of waste generated by humans was insignificant due to low population density and low societal levels of the exploitation of natural resources. Common waste produced during pre- modern times was mainly ashes and human biodegradable waste, and these were released back into the ground locally, with minimum environmental impact. Tools made out of wood or metal were generally reused or passed down through the generations. However, some civilizations do seem to have been more profligate in their waste output than others.

In particular, the Maya of Central America had a axed monthly ritual, in which the people of the village would gather together and burn their rubbish in large dumps. METHODS OF DISPOSAL mandrill: A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump or dumping ground and historically as a minded) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. Historically, landfills have been the most common methods of organized waste disposal and remain so in many places around the world.

Some landfills are also used for waste management purposes, such as the temporary storage, consolidation and ranchers, or processing of waste material (sorting, treatment, or recycling). A landfill also may refer to ground that has been filled in with rocks instead of waste materials, so that it can be used for a specific purpose, such as for building houses. Unless they are stabilized, these areas may experience severe shaking or liquefaction of the ground in a large earthquake.

Operations A section of a landfill located in Barclay, Ontario. Typically, in Nostradamus waste landfills, in order to meet predefined specifications, techniques are applied by which the wastes are: 1 . Confined to as small an area as possible. 2. Compacted to reduce their volume. 3. Covered (usually daily) with layers of soil. During landfill operations the waste collection vehicles are weighed at a weighbridge on arrival and their load is inspected for wastes that do not accord with the landfills waste acceptance criteria.

Afterward, the waste collection vehicles use the existing road network on their way to the tipping face or working front where they unload their contents. After loads are deposited, compactors Or bulldozers are used to spread and compact the waste on the working face. Before leaving the landfill boundaries, the waste collection vehicles pass through a wheel cleaning facility. If necessary, they return to the weighbridge in order to be weighed without their load. Through the weighing process, the daily incoming waste tonnage can be calculated and listed in databases for record keeping.

In addition to trucks, some landfills may be equipped to handle railroad containers. The use of rail-haul’ permits landfills to be located at more remote sites, without the problems associated with many truck trips. Typically, in the working face, the impacted waste is covered with soil or alternative materials daily. Alternative waste-cover materials are chipped wood or other “green waste”, several sprayed-on foam products, chemically ‘fixed’ bio-solids and temporary blankets.

Blankets can be lifted into place at night then removed the following day prior to waste placement. The space that is occupied daily by the compacted waste and the cover material is called a daily cell. Waste compaction is critical to extending the life of the landfill. Factors such as waste compressibility, waste layer thickness and the number of passes of the impostor over the waste affect the waste densities. Impacts Landfill operation in Hawaii. Many adverse impacts may occur from landfill operations. Damage can include infrastructure disruption (e. G. Mage to access roads by heavy vehicles); pollution of the local environment (such as contamination of groundwater and/or aquifers by leakage or sinkholes and residual soil contamination during landfill usage, as well as after landfill closure); off gassing of methane generated by decaying organic wastes (methane is a greenhouse gas many times more potent than carbon dioxide, and can itself be a danger to inhabitants of an area); harboring of disease vectors such as rats and flies, particularly from improperly operated landfills, which are common in developing countries; injuries to wildlife; and simple nuisance problems (e. . , dust, odor, vermin, or noise pollution). Though offside impacts of landfills are of primary concern to regulators, the status of the resident microbial community in a landfill may determine the efficiency with which natural attenuation of contaminants proceeds on site. It was shown that bacterial diversity, including diversity of pollutant degrades as variable within a major landfill site and was related to the level of contamination within a particular zone. Some local authorities have found it difficult to locate new landfills.

Communities may charge a fee or levy to discourage waste and/or recover the costs of site operations. Many landfills are publicly funded, but some are commercial businesses, operated for profit. Trash and garbage is a common sight in urban and rural areas of India. It is a major source of pollution. Indian cities alone generate more than 100 million tons of solid waste a year. Street corners are piled with trash. Public places and sidewalks are despoiled with filth and litter, rivers and canals act as garbage dumps. In part, Indian’s garbage crisis is from rising consumption.

Indian’s waste problem also points to a stunning failure of governance. In 2000, Indian’s Supreme Court directed all Indian cities to implement a comprehensive waste-management program that WOUld include household collection of segregated waste, recycling and composting. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development estimates that up to 40 percent of municipal waste in India remains simply uncollected. In 2011, several Indian cities embarked on waste-to-energy projects of the type in use in Germany, Switzerland and Japan.

For example, New Delhi is implementing two incinerator projects aimed at turning the city’s trash problem into electricity resource. These plants are being welcomed for addressing the city’s chronic problems of excess untreated waste and a shortage of electric power. They are also being welcomed by those who seek to prevent water pollution, hygiene problems, and eliminate rotting trash that produces potent greenhouse gas methane. The projects are being opposed by waste collection workers and coal unions who fear changing tech oenology may deprive them of their livelihood and way of life.

Incineration Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of residue of both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management. This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as “thermal treatment”. Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam and ash.

Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants. Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills.

Waste-to- energy (Wet) or energy-from-waste (Few) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam or electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks. Particular concern has focused on some very persistent organics such as dioxins, furans, Pass which may be created which may have serious environmental consequences. Technology An incinerator is a furnace for burning waste. Modern incinerators include pollution mitigation equipment such as flue gas cleaning.

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