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1. Introduction

The “ London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games ” has created an environment for designers and applied scientists to come up with advanced designs and undertakings to present Games. In this study is a literature reappraisal on research subjects from old universe featuring events. The purpose of this literature is to inform readers and research workers about the current survey on impact from Hallmark events such as the Olympics.

London was awarded the XXXth Olympiad in 2012 “ on July 6 2005 by Jacques Rogge the president of the International Olympic Committee ( IOC ) at the General Assembly in Singapore ” ( BBC, 2005 ) . Among other viing metropoliss were Paris, Moscow, New York and Madrid. London was awarded the Games because it “ presented a powerful instance of transforming and renewing the societal and clean landscape of Stratford, E of London ” ( BBC, 2005 ) . It besides incorporated constructs such as non-wasteful games, the usage of celebrated landmarks and bing featuring events if it was awarded the Games ( BBC, 2005 ) .

Research work on the impact of Hallmark events in metropoliss were based around five capable countries which were “ Sustainability, Legacies, Urban Regeneration, Tourism and Economic Impact ” ( Brown and Massey, 2001 ) . The sum of literature available to use as a direct mention for this research was highly limited due to the fact that this event has non yet happened.

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2.0 Methodology

A literature hunt from academic publication database was undertaken utilizing the Google hunt engine. Primary information from published diaries and articles which covered countries of athletics, societal and economic impact of major games in metropoliss was besides accessed.

A hunt on bibliographies of articles on published articles was besides revisited. However, the following sites were utile in obtaining primary information ;

Nottingham University Business School was besides contacted as they had written an article on “ The Economic Impact of the London 2012 Olympics ” . This study was done by Adam Blake in May 2005 and can be found online. The “ Olympic Village ” and Stratford site were besides visited as portion of obtaining first manus information. This provided primary informations to the research and opened avenues for other beginnings of information.

Literature Review

3.0 Sustainability surveies

London 2012 is said to be “ The first sustainable Olympic and Paralympic Games ‘ with the purpose of “ cut downing C dioxide emanations by understating constructing energy demand and providing from zero- or low-carbon and renewable resources ” ( Bowdin, Allen, O’Toole, 2006 ) . Sustainable development is defined by the United Nations as a “ development that is balanced between people ‘s economic and societal demands and the ability of the Earth ‘s resources and ecosystems to run into present and future demands ” .

Research tells us hosting Olympic Games is non about constructing new substructure as stated by Commission for Architecture and Built Environment ( CABE ) . The CABE ‘s position on the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games was that “ The Games were hosted on a site that had been transformed from a extremely contaminated post-industrial barren to a 425-hectare sustainable urban parkland with sustainability being an built-in portion of the design and direction ” ( CABE, 2000 ) .

In a research done by the United Nations Environment Programme ( UNEP ) in 2007 it shows that sustainable games are the manner for future games. It stated that “ During the campaigner stage in 2000, Beijing set ambitious environmental end to demo the universe its committedness to sustainable development ” . Recent literature shows that Beijing “ achieved ends such as the waste H2O intervention, H2O beginning protection and waste direction ” ( UNEP, 2008 ) . The UNEP described Beijing 2008 as a success “ sing that the Organizing Committee of the old Olympic Summer Games failed to follow up on their environmental promises ” .

The Olympic Delivery Authority for London 2012 describes the construct of the London 2012 Games as “ the vision of making a sustainable bequest for London and the UK ” ( ODA, 2007 ) . It besides has a bequest of “ regeneration of one of the most disadvantaged countries in the UK – East London – and making one of Europe ‘s largest urban Parks ” ( ODA, 2007 ) . Besides in another study it stated that “ At the bosom of the conveyance programs for 2012 is a committedness to promote witnesss to go to events by public conveyance, walking or cycling, assisting to present sustainable Games and utilizing the power of the Games to drive alteration in the planning of major events ” ( ODA, 2007 ) .

4.0 Legacy Studies

In a station survey research on the Sydney Olympic in 2000 by the UNEP commented that “ The development of the Olympic Park was the largest undertaking of its sort in Australia, with around 9 million three-dimensional meters of landfill necessitating intervention and 160 hectares necessitating some signifier of redress. ” Recent research shows that Olympic venues go a fiscal load to keep after the games. Philippe Furrer on the other thinks “ Today, in Sydney, pulling adequate events to achieve profitableness and viing with other pre-Olympic locales is turn outing a serious job for Stadium Australia and the Super Dome, both financed by the private sector ” . Some people have described the Sydney Olympic Park “ Sydney Jurassic Park ” as it has straggled to be sustainable. Recent research into the hosting of the Football World Cup in Korea and Japan highlight the over coped bowls in many instances, represents a considerable fiscal load to keep.

In a station survey study by Jiang Xiaoyu he commented that “ Beijing has made some initial accomplishments in the proper usage of athletics locales to run into people ‘s demands ” ( Xiaoyu, 2009 ) . He besides commented on “ The Olympic Green has become a new popular tourer topographic point with the figure of visitants these locales drew exceeded even that of the Forbidden City for some clip after the Games, ” ( Xiaoyu, 2009 ) . In all the Beijing Olympic games has left a bequest that has inspired a whole state. The locales and installations would go forth a rich bequest for the host metropolis ” . He farther commented that the “ athleticss locales that have been built and have been really intelligently embedded into the universities for the most portion and the after-the-Games usage of the locales will be optimum ” ( Hickson, 2009 ) .

The Olympic Delivery Committee for “ London 2012 ” will be utilizing bing locales such as the O2 Arena and Eton Dorney for rhythmic and rowing events during the “ London 2012 ” Games. Harmonizing to Hearn the president of the Professional Darts Corporation and World Snooker. : 2012 Olympic Stadium “ biggest waste of money I ‘ve of all time seen ” . He goes on to state that “ The twenty-four hours after the Olympics has finished and the grass starts turning in the seats, that bowl is non sustainable ” ( Hearn, 2010 ) . He farther suggests that “ The angle of the seats is all incorrect for football as there is an athletics path, a warm-up path and long leap cavity, so the fans will be stat mis off and any football fan will state you that is what kills the ambiance ” ( Hearn, 2010 ) . John Armitt on the other manus argues that the regeneration benefits of “ London 2012 Games ” . He said: “ The bequest aspirations of London 2012 run through everything we do as the benefits this investing will convey, including the transmutation of ignored industrial land into a new urban park ” ( Armitt, 2007 ) .

5.0 Economic Impact Studies

Staging major featuring events brings challenges to state asides its benefits.

The 1972 Olympics in Munich resulted in a loss of ?178 million

The Montreal Olympics of 1976 resulted in a loss of ?692 million

The 1984 Los Angeles Olympics made a net income of ?215 million

The Barcelona Olympics in 1992 made an overall net income of 358 million pesetas ( Ferran Brunet 1996 ) .

The Atlanta Olympics in 1996 was expected generate $ 5.1bn into the Georgian economic system ( Jerry Schwartz 1996 ) .

As stated by Dr Adam Brown and Joanne Massey in the “ Impact of Major Sporting Events ” article “ hosting featuring events has been viewed as a esteemed accomplishment ensuing in chances for economic net income, urban regeneration and planetary media exposure ( Smales 1996: 46 ) ” . Recent literature supports the position that hosting major featuring events brings some benefits to the economic system of the host metropolis.

5.1 Job Creation

Organizing major featuring events helps in occupation creative activity as new and existing substructure is needed in hosting the Games. Construction of athleticss substructure creates avenues for occupations in the building industry. And due to the inflow of tourers from other states during the games turns to boom the economic system of the host state through its retail and tourer industry. In a study prepared by Grant Thornton, Torkildsen Barclay and the Christel DeHaan Tourism and Travel Research Institute suggest that “ with intercession in cardinal countries, the gross benefits to the East of England from the London 2012 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games could transcend ?600 million ” .

During the Atlantic Games a astonishing “ $ 2 billion was invested in Olympic related undertakings Olympic-related undertakings ensuing in over 580 000 new occupations were created in the part between 1991 and 1997 ” ( Malfas M. , Theodoraki E. & A ; Houlihan B, 2003 ) .

As highlighted by J Massey in the “ impact of major featuring events ” , Professor Robert Bade argued that: “ once the event is over, even if that substructure is used it will merely realine leisure disbursement within Atlanta ‘s economic system, instead than adding to passing overall and the impact after the Olympics is likely to be something that is near to nil ” ( Bade, 1995 ) .

The sum of literature available to use as a direct mention for London 2012 research was highly limited due to the fact that this event has non yet happened. ‘Recent research conducted for the DCMS on the overall economic impact of the 2012 Games on the UK economic system estimated an addition in UK GDP of around ?1.9 billion over the 2005-2016 period.

Research done by Blake Adams suggests that more occupations have been created by the “ London 2012 Olympic Games ” . He farther argued that in the pre-event stage of 2012 Games “ the largest positive consequence seen is in the building sector, where gross value added additions by ?506 million ; this consequence is straight related to the investing activities being undertaken ” ( Adams 2005 ) . It is besides estimated that “ 3,000 workers will be hired in the five twelvemonth period 2006-2011 because of the Games ” ( Adams, 2005 ) .

5.20 Tourism

In a study published by the European Tour Operators Association ( ETOA ) shows that “ states who host the Olympic Games suffer from a bead in touristry growing in the old ages environing the event and in the instance of Australia, a tendency of over 10 % growing in visitant reachings turned into a diminution two twelvemonth before the Sydney Olympic ” .

Tom Jerkins the executive Director of ETOA said “ These findings may look surprising because during the Games the metropolis ‘s hotels are full. But this state of affairs is ephemeral ” . He farther argued that “ Olympic visitants tend non to be large consumers of sightseeing jaunt ; neither are they committed visitants to museums, historic memorials and other authoritative attractive forces. ” He besides stated that “ The presence of the Olympic deters regular tourers: they perceive that the metropolis will be full, disrupted, congested and over-priced ” . He concluded by stating “ The Olympic Games do non turn tourers into athleticss fans or athleticss fans into tourers ” ( Jerkins, 2006 ) . London 2012 locales such as “ Wembley ( Soccer ) , Wimbledon ( Tennis ) and Kennington ( Cricket ) are non non-sporting tourer finishs ; they are non and will non go Centres of touristry. London is a great tourer metropolis ” ( Jerkins, 2006 ) . The Olympic Delivery Authority for the 2012 Games will hold to set steps in topographic point to guarantee “ its continued growing is non disrupted by the Olympics ” ( Jerkins, 2006 ) .

Figure 1 Beginning: Tourism de Barcelona

6.0 Urban Regeneration Surveies

Research shows that organizing trademark featuring events it non merely about constructing locales. Olympics have and is still being redefined in each and every host state event. Research shows that extended media coverage does non vouch a new image for its host. The media on the other manus purposes to maximise net income for host metropoliss. Chalkley and Essex noted that “ in 1960, CBS, the American telecasting company, paid US $ 440, 000 for covering the Rome [ Olympic ] Games ” . The telecasting rights for the Atlanta Games were sold for US $ 900 million and the American NBC web has purchased the rights until 2008 for US $ 3.6 billion.

The Department for Culture, Media & A ; Sport, published a study in 2009 stating that “ The purpose of the 2012 Games goes beyond edifice locales and life infinites ” ( Department for Culture, Media & A ; Sport, 2009 ) . In a recent literature by Joey Gardiner in an article published by the Building Magazine it states that the “ Thames gateway curate Bob Neill unveiled a ?500m support bundle for regeneration strategies in and around the Olympic Park to guarantee public existent betterments after the 2012 games ” ( Gardiner, 2010 ) . Neil farther commented that “ the ?300m of the money was being given to the Olympic Delivery Authority for transmutation plants after the games, with ?217m being given to other administrations to fix the site for renovation ” ( Gardiner, 2010 ) . John Armitt argues that “ the regeneration is more than merely physical transmutation ; it is besides about societal and economic alteration ” . In a study published by the House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts in “ The budget for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games ” it stated that “ At the clip of London ‘s command to host the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2012 the cost of the Games was estimated to be merely over ?4 billion but after London was awarded the Games, the Department for Culture, Media and Sport and the Olympic Delivery Authority reviewed the cost estimations and in March 2007 announced a budget of ?9.325 billion ” .

8.0 Decision

Hosting the 2012 Olympics on the 27th July 2012 will do London the “ first metropolis in the universe to host the Olympic Games for the 3rd clip ” ( BBC 2005 ) . The cost of the Games is presently at ?12 billion which has over run the ab initio budget of ?2.4 billion ( Gilligan, 2010 ) . This research shows how hosting games can run over the initial budget and in the instance of “ London 2012 Olympics ” it has triple its initial estimation at the command phase.

The London 2012 Velodrome has hits the roof already with timber ceiling in topographic point as at July 2010. The Olympic Mountain Bike locale was besides in first-class advancement as at October 2010. ODA Chairman John Armitt said: “ The completion of Orient Way was imperative to the start of the bowl building, and I am delighted that all bringing spouses involved have completed this important undertaking five hebdomads early and on budget ” ( Armitt, 2010 ) . This literature shows that the London 2012 is in front of scheduled and will be delivered in clip for the “ 2012 Olympic Games ” ( Armitt, 2010 ) .

London is a great Tourist finish nevertheless research has proven that the inflow of tourer will be on the lessening after the completion of trademark events. Effective steps will hold to be put in topographic point to guarantee sustainable growing in Tourism after the Games in 2012.

The London 2012 Olympic substructure such as the London Aquatic Centre “ will host regional, national and some international events every bit good as supplying elect preparation installations after the games ” ( London 2012 ) . The design of the Aquatic Centre will besides “ set the criterion for architectural quality in a cardinal regeneration country will make occupations and hike the local economic system ” ( London 2012 ) . In my position the “ London 2012 ” Olympics will make chances to pull local and deprived people to athleticss. “ London 2012 ” will redefine criterions for future Olympic Games if it achieves its Legacy and Sustainability ends.

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