This essay will look into the cogency of utilizing type 1a Supernovae as Standard Candles. The chief focal point of the work in inquiry will be to look at what a standard taper is and why they are used in uranology. The essay will besides discourse the cogency of utilizing type 1a supernovae as a standard taper.
The definition of a standard taper “is a category of astrophysical objects, such as supernovae or variable stars, which have known brightness due to some characteristic quality possessed by the full category of objects.” [ I ] Therefore if an object is classified as a standard taper its absolute magnitude will be known and so utilizing the equation m=M-97.5+5log ( D ) , can so cipher the distance to the object. Standard tapers are highly of import in uranology as they provide the mention frame in order to happen the distance to new objects that have been observed.
In the early portion of the twentieth century Edwin Hubble discovered from detecting Cepheid stars ( “ is a member of a category of throbing variable stars ” ) [ two ] that the galaxies where traveling off. It was so found that Cepheid stars had a direct relationship between the stars brightness and its intrinsic brightness. Henrietta Swan Leavitt “calibrated the consequence so that a comparing of the deliberate and ascertained brightness of a Cepheid could find its distance” [ three ] these where the first criterion tapers.
As Cepheid stars are hard to detect, it was discovered that utilizing supernova provided more accurate measurings for distance. The most reliable type of supernova used as standard tapers and are highly accurate at mensurating distances are type 1a supernova as they have a cosmic uniformity. The bulk of type 1a “all seem to be of about the same intrinsic brightness, and so their seeable brightness has been used to mensurate the distances of objects” [ four ] . Which means that all type 1a supernovas found can be used as standard tapers.
What is Supernovae Type 1a?
Supernovae type 1a is formed by “the detonation of a white midget in a binary as a consequence of affair falling on to it from its comrade star.” [ V ]
In this type of binary system the white midget comrade will accrete affair onto the surface of the white midget. When the white midget exceeds the Chandrasekhar bound of approximately 1.38 solar multitudes, the star will no longer be able to bear its weight from electron force per unit area and it will fall in, it is this prostration which causes the detonation. Type 1a supernovae are normally formed in all different types of galaxies.
All type 1a supernovae should in theory have the same typical visible radiation curve which is “their graph of brightness as a map of clip after the explosion.” [ six ] As the bulk of type 1a occur in the same manner, means that the sum of stuff falling on the stars will be approximately known.
In most instances these supernovae have been seen to hold the same extremum brightness and because of this means they can be used as standard tapers to happen their true distances.
The equation that is used to happen this distance is d=10^ ( ( m-M-A+5 ) /5 ) where the distance found is in secpar where the uncertainness of 0.1 magnitude in the distance modulus, m-M.
The cogency of utilizing type 1a supernova as standard tapers:
From observations of supernova in the scope of magnitudes between 0.2 to 0.4 in uncorrected spread of ascertained supernova, this spread “translates into uncertainnesss of approximately 10 % to 20 % in distances” [ seven ] . By close review of type 1a supernova it has been seen that all supernova observed have the same brightness at upper limit and unvarying visual aspect. Due to these similarities in the assorted supernovas this means that the light curves and development can besides be examined for similarities.
Finding the distance to the supernova the relationship between the light curves form and brightness has to be investigated. It has been found that non all the light curves for type 1a supernova are unvarying therefore this distance has to be normalised in order to happen the precise cosmogonic distance step. So this means that measurings of distance can non be made by utilizing type 1a supernova entirely but done in along side other distance steps.
Since the right value for the absolute extremum measuring is unknown, this leads to error in the distance measuring. There are three different rectification methods which are used to acquire the accurate measurings they are “the original templet method, the motley visible radiation curve form and the stretch relation” [ eight ] . The motley visible radiation curve form method and original templet method have comparable corrections with beginnings for the standardization the two methods besides have a big spread. The stretch method varies from its average rectification. So by working together these methods help with the corrections of the light curves but working singly consequences in mistakes in the rectification.
It has been noticed that the more studied the object the more differences that are found in the light curves. The most common topographic points where these differences can be seen are in the colors and the era of the maximal visible radiation. It is hard to divide the light curves of supernova types other that type 1a for illustration the light curves of Type Ib/c as these curves can be indistinguishable to type 1a. Normally the light curves from Type Ib/c are redder at maximal visible radiation and they can besides make the same brightness as type 1a supernova. Due to these two factors it could be hard to separate between the two when looking at distant supernovas. By trying the light curves sufficiently it is possible to happen the peak brightness. In supernova type 1a that show light curves differences it has besides been seen that these supernova besides show spectral differences. In this unusual supernova it has been seen that the light curve correlativities are non followed by these objects. Another ground why type 1a are non standard tapers.
By agencies of utilizing Cepheid ‘s as another distance indexs it has been observed that there is a spread in the “average absolute magnitude of Type 1a supernova at upper limit of 0.15 magnitudes” [ nine ] . As the detonation mechanisms for the Type 1a supernova are non widely understood it could be said that utilizing Cepheid ‘s could be a more accurate distance step. The method of pulsing is known and a more elaborate survey of the light curves has been carried out. In world neither Cepheid ‘s or Type 1a supernova are accurate distance measurings but due to the fact that their relationship between the light curves form and brightness is correlated in both instances does do them good indexs for distance.
In this essay investigated criterion tapers which are objects with a certain brightness which can be used to mensurate distances, looked at the first used criterion candles the Cepheid ‘s. Looked at how type 1a supernova occurs from the accumulation of affair onto a white midget and when the Chandrasekhar mass is exceeded. This is the most good known instance for a type 1a supernova to happen.
Following measure was to analyze the cogency of utilizing type 1a supernova as standard tapers. In this subdivision looked at the different statements for the cogency of type 1a supernova. It can be said that since fluctuations in the light curves have been discovered that cogency of utilizing type 1a supernova has been in inquiry. The differences in these light curves shows that non all type 1a supernova detonations are the same resulting in an mistake in the distance measured. Using rectification factors this distance can be normalised but overall type 1a supernova should non be used entirely for distance measurings. These Correction methods work good together but non independently. From observations of distant supernova it has been found that light curves from other types of supernova can imitate the same visible radiation curve for the type 1a intending the truth of utilizing type 1a could be diminished. In decision utilizing Type 1a supernova for distance measuring does non give an accurate consequence as it contains mistakes ( from fluctuations in light curves, to error in the peak measuring ) . In theory type 1a supernova should be a standard taper as it has a good correlativity between its light curves form and brightness. Pending farther observations of type 1a supernova is necessary in order to supply a precise base line for the light curves so as to able to utilize these supernovas as standard tapers. Until so type 1a supernova can be used as distance indexs.
Front page: hypertext transfer protocol: //hetdex.org/images/dark_energy/standard_candles.jpg
[ I ] hypertext transfer protocol: //universe-review.ca/R02-07-candle.htm
[ two ] hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cepheid_variable
[ three ] hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cfa.harvard.edu/sao/su/2009/su200901.html
[ four ]
[ V ] Oxford Astronomy Dictionary
[ six ] hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_Ia_supernova
[ seven ] Title: Are Type 1a Supernova Standard Candles? Writer: Bruno Leibundgut 2004
[ eight ] Title: Are Type 1a Supernova Standard Candles? Writer: Bruno Leibundgut 2004
[ nine ] Title: Are Type 1a Supernova Standard Candles? Writer: Bruno Leibundgut 2004