Within Trinidad and Tobago, limited wellness attention systems are provided for kids. However, there are limited services that are provided for kids within this state. As witnessed, Trinidad and Tobago is based on the universals system. Therefore the wellness attention is seen as a cosmopolitan wellness attention system, this is where free wellness attention is provided for individuals of all age. The Regional Health Authority ( RHA ) comes into being. However, the health care is provided free of charge to all kids under 16 old ages of age, including non-nationals. This includes every type of health care, from inoculation to surgery to intensive attention. To derive entree of Pediatric services Children must be under the age of 16 must be accompanied by a parent or defender when sing any wellness installation within Trinidad and Tobago. However, with this, there is no demand to do an assignment stated by the Ministry of Health ( 2012 ) . .
In add-on there is besides the Children Life Fund Program. This plan was launched in August 2010 by the Government of Trinidad and Tobago and was created to supply support and critical support specifically for kids necessitating life economy, tertiary-level wellness attention services. Therefore, by acknowledging the demand to assist assorted kids, the Government is working vehemently to pull subscribers to the Life Fund. Harmonizing to Ministry of Health ( 2012 ) the major end of this programme is to raise $ 100 million in the Life Fund geared towards assisting households with kids in demand of life-saving surgeries. Private sector inducements will besides be established to promote parts to the LIFE Fund and partnership agreements affecting foreign specialist infirmaries, aimed at increasing cognition and engineering in the local wellness sector, are to be established.
In add-on there is besides of free immunisation available for kids with in Trinidad and Tobago. Harmonizing to the Ministry of Health ( ) immunisation services are provided and are at no cost for citizens of Trinidad and Tobago. It was besides stated that the end of the Ministry do certain that every citizens are to the full immunized. However, in order to derive inoculation it depends on the age and good being of the person. To further this when a kid is born, they are been referred a Health Centre within the community or to a wellness attention professional which so during the undermentioned six hebdomads a nurse visits both the kid and the female parent. The kid will be given subsequent assignments at the Health Centre, during the appropriate clinic yearss, in conformity with the immunisation agenda below and kids are monitored at the Health Centre up to five old ages of age as identified by the Ministry of Health ( 2012 ) .
In add-on to the wellness attention services offered in Trinidad and Tobago there are besides wellness attention services provided for kids in America. The United States provided assorted wellness attention services provided for kids. There is the Children Health Insurance Program ( CHIP ) which, is a public-sector funding for kids ‘s wellness insurance chiefly through Medicaid. This plan is financed by the federal and province authoritiess and administered by the United States. In add-on, this plan is expeditiously good towards kids. This plan, fundamentally, entails kids in the United States of America who are without a wellness insurance will hold a possibility to derive wellness coverage from the Children Health Insurance Program besides knows as the Children Medicaid. The plan covers office visits, prescription drugs, alveolar consonant attention, oculus scrutinies buying spectacless and several other wellness attention resources that are good to the kid or kids. However, there is a minor difference with households deriving CHIP and households deriving Children Medicaid. Families with kids who gain Children Medicaid pays nil, where as households who additions CHIP pays no more than 50 dollars a twelvemonth for wellness attention coverage ( Christopher 1998 ) .
Equally good as the CHIP and Children Medicaid, there is besides the Children Medical Services ( CMS ) . This is services provides A provides a comprehensive system of wellness attention for kids through preventative showing, diagnostic, intervention, rehabilitation, and follow-up services. It besides carries out its undertaking through a assortment of plans by run intoing specific wellness attention demands of targeted population. Therefore, in the United States of America, the Partners for Children ( PFC ) plan is another wellness attention plan that provides services for kids. Through local take parting sanatarium and place wellness bureaus, to assist kids and their households during the class of the kid ‘s unwellness is the chief intent of this service.A Harmonizing to the Policy Statement Palliative Care for Children ( 2000 ) , the end of this plan is to better quality of life every bit good as cut down infirmary corsets, medical conveyances and exigency room visits.A A Where as some if it services includes care coordination, household preparation, reprieve, expressive therapies, and household mourning counseling.A However, a major demand for this plan in where, a kid must run into allA waiver criteriaA such as age bound, abode in a active county, full-scope Medi-Cal coverage, and medical or degree of attention requirements.A
As observed it is at that place understood that Trinidad and Tobago has a cosmopolitan wellness attention system. These systems are used by bulk of the population seeking medical aid, as it is free for all citizens. Whereas the in the United States of America there is n’t a cosmopolitan wellness attention system. Therefore, is can clearly be seen that plans are offered to kids based on their parents ‘ economic position and based on their wellness. The Children ‘s Medicaid as identified aforementioned is the lone plan that does necessitate a payment to derive aid where as the CHIP plans need an sum of 50 dollars.
However, there are besides child protection services for both Trinidad and Tobago and for the United States of America. In the United States of America, there is the Child Protection service. Harmonizing to Peter et Al ( 1992 ) Child Protective ServicesA ( CPS ) is the name of aA governmental agencyA in United StatesA that responds to studies ofA child abuseA or disregard. Some provinces use other names, frequently trying to reflect more family-centered as opposed to child-centered patterns, such as “ Department of Children & A ; Family Services ” . In add-on, to the Children Protection Services there is besides the save the kids plan. This plan protects kids from maltreatment, disregard, development, and force in all parts of the universe. It focuses on the defenseless kids while taking for the safety and wellbeing of all kids. However, working with authoritiess, international organisations, and local community spouses, has helped the plan to endeavor to make permanent alteration with betterments in policy and services that protect kids whether in a natural catastrophe, struggle, or development scene. Some plans that are included in the kid protection plan includes making Child Friendly Spaces in exigencies, reuniting separated and unaccompanied kids with their households in exigencies, developing public consciousness runs against kid trafficking, flying preparation plans for societal workers to supply supportive attention to households and kids and recommending for more effectual national protection policies and kid public assistance reform. Thus, an of import portion of all of Save the Children ‘s kid protection work, nevertheless, is the engagement and leading of the kids themselves.
On the other manus within Trinidad and Tobago, Foster attention, is a service that is provided for kids. Foster attention is intended to be a impermanent life state of affairs for a kid who is non able to populate with his or her natural parents due to cases of decease, maltreatment, disregard or forsaking. A The end of surrogate attention is to reunite the kid with their parent or guardian or happen another suited lasting life agreement such as an adoptive place, care or arrangement with a relative.A In some cases, kids may be placed in a Foster attention agreement at a kids ‘s place or with another suited individual. Some Foster attention plans that are included and identified within Trinidad and Tobago are the St. Michael ‘s Home for Boys, St. Jude ‘s Home for Girls, St. Dominick ‘s Home and St. Mary ‘s Home. These places are provided for kids who were maltreatments, neglected or abandoned by their parents. At these places, the kids either reside at these places of settee there for a period of clip.
In add-on to the aforementioned there are besides programmes that are being implemented, such Childs in Need of Direction. This programme addresses the educational, societal and emotional demands of deprived kids. Through their “ patronize a kid to larn ” plan sort has helped over 350 kids, giving them the chance to get a sound instruction while transfusing in them a sense of worth. The Children ‘s Villages Association of Trinidad and Tobago ( CVATT ) A is besides another protection service offered for kids. It is one of the major establishments focused on bettering criterions in the direction of kids ‘s places. Representatives of the organisation on a regular basis visit places, to run into with decision makers of the places and is developing a theoretical account for constructing the capacity of places willing to work with CVATT to better the proviso of attention for abandoned and abused kids. They besides host regular capacity edifice workshops covering with issues impacting the places, so that kids can acquire sufficient and improved lovingness.
However, the protection services plans identified within Trinidad and Tobago and the services identified within the United stated are really similar. These two states both offers foster attention plans that are for both kids who are been neglected, abandoned or abused. However, these plans are really effectual within the two counties because they have grasped a figure of kids who has been confronting these issues. Therefore, the plans that are offered by these establishments are schemes where the kid is developed, socially, emotionally and physically.
Analysis OF THE CHILDREN ACT 2009 USING CRITCAL MODEL
In Trinidad and Tobago, a juvenile is under the age of 18 old ages and as such the Government saw the enterprise and implemented so Trinidad and Tobago Children ‘s Act 2009 Chapter 46:1, to safeguard and advance the rights of a kid. In many instances, a kid ‘s topographic point is in the attention of the household and the society ; they are looked at as belongings of those households and society, instead than persons with rights. This act came into being because of many grounds but one major ground is a long history of neglecting households, decease, forsaking or mental or emotional incompetency, maltreatment and disregard. The society has created a system of informal Foster attention agreements where kids live with other individuals that are non their household member, close relations within the drawn-out household such as grandparents, aunts and god-parents, and even aliens. Over the old ages the tribunal has progressively been partaking in puting kids with replacement parents through fit-person orders or through acceptance. In analysing the policy 1 has to see the theoretical accounts for making such and the most suited theoretical account in analysing the Children ‘s Act of Trinidad and Tobago 2009 is the critical theoretical account. Harmonizing to Elizabeth Segal, critical theoretical account is utile in analysing who is doing the policy determinations, who benefits and who does non benefit.A To critically analyse the policy 1 has to see the societal jobs, public dealingss, implemented societal public assistance plans, existent impact, populace ‘s outlooks and affected population.A
Harmonizing to Part one of the ( Children ‘s Act 2009 ) highlighted is the bar of inhuman treatment to kids and immature individuals, andA it states subdivision 3 ( 1 ) If any individual over the age of 16 old ages, who has the detention, charge, or attention of any kid or immature individual, wilfully assaults, ill-treats, disregards, wantonnesss, or exposes the kid or immature individual, or causes or procures the kid or immature individual to be assaulted, abused, neglected, abandoned, or exposed, in a mode likely to do the kid or immature individual unneeded agony or hurt to his wellness ( including hurt to or loss of sight, or hearing, or limb, or organ of the organic structure, and any mental mental unsoundness ) that individual is apt, ( a ) on strong belief on indictment, to a mulct of 10 thousand dollars, or instead, or in default of payment of such all right, or in add-on thereto, to imprisonment for two old ages ; and ( B ) on drumhead strong belief, to a mulct of five thousand dollars, or instead, or in add-on thereto, to imprisonment for six months. This portion speaks about: penalty for inhuman treatment to kids and immature individuals, penalty to be increased if money accruable to offender on decease of kid, involvement in portion, policy of insurance proved by certified transcript, discourtesy of inhuman treatment and asphyxiation of babies. Other discourtesies related to kids and immature people are: beggary, exposing kids to hazard of combustion, leting kids or immature individual ‘s to be in whorehouses, doing, promoting, or favoring seduction or harlotry of kid or immature individual, Binding over individuals holding detention of kid or immature individual, order for counseling.A
The societal job with this subdivision of the act is where kids are being abused and exploited physically and sexually by grownups, kids are being used as sex slaves, kids are enduring for nutrient, vesture and shelter. This subdivision seeks to forestall and eliminate these discourtesies, against kids. Harmonizing to the ( Children ‘s Act subdivision 11 ( 2 ) , kid or immature individual so taken to a topographic point of safety, and besides any kid or immature individual who seeks safety in a topographic point of safety, may at that place be detained until he can be brought before a Magistrate, and such Magistrate may do such order as is mentioned in the following followers subdivision, or may do the kid or immature individual to be dealt with as fortunes may acknowledge and necessitate, until the charge made against any individual in regard of any offense as aforesaid with respect to the kid or immature individual has been determined by the strong belief or discharge of such individual.
The populace saw the demand to implement Torahs where individuals are being punished for perpetrating flagitious offenses against children.A The degree of consciousness of the being of kid maltreatment and disregard in the society are considered to be reasonably high, individuals in society reported the Acts of the Apostless and made recommendations to cover entirely with child maltreatment. The Government so took up the enterprise to turn to the state of affairs in Trinidad and Tobago and made certain alterations and executions. The populace ‘s reaction gave rise to the populace ‘s outlooks to the job and most individuals were pleased with the execution of the Torahs to protect the kids.
The highlighting of the job gave manner the execution of a plan for kids, the creative activity of the National Family Services Division within the Ministry of Consumer Affairs and Social Services, which placed kids and immature people who have been abuse or neglected in places. It was seen as a demand for kids and immature individual ‘s so they implemented officers who are appointed to help the homesA in updating kids ‘s personal, societal and medical histories.A
The existent positive impact is non high but the consciousness on maltreatment and disregard against kids has increased and a batch of individuals are cognizant of the marks to look for in maltreatment and the demand to describe any such incidents. Social workers are working indefatigably in assisting with the issue by making guidance, lectures in schools and community and by merely talking out on the matter.A It is apparent that the affected population is kids and immature individuals and those household members who come into contact with them. As it relates to the subdivision on bar of inhuman treatment to kids and immature individuals, theA GovernmentA has tried in implementing plan and amending Torahs to prosecute child wrongdoers but there is still more work to be done and more rigorous Torahs to be implemented.
Harmonizing to portion 5 of the ( Children ‘s Act 2009 ) where a kid or immature individual is arrested or charged with any offense, or in proceedings referred to in subdivision 15 ( 1 ) or ( 2 ) , a biddings or warrant may be issued by a Magistrate to implement the attending of the parent or defender for the intent of enabling such parent or guardian to take portion in the proceedings and enabling orders to be made against him, in the same mode as if a ailment were made upon which a biddings or warrant could be issued against a suspect under the Summary Courts Act, and a biddings to the kid or immature individual may include a biddings to the parent or guardian to implement his attending for the said intent. That subdivision is another of import portion in the revamping of the kids ‘s act. In Trinidad and Tobago offenses amongst kids and immature people is a societal job that needs to be addressed. Many immature people because of their background, household and environment locate themselves in condemnable activities. The public or society is truly alarmed by the state of affairs and many communities have raised their voice to battle offenses amongst juveniles. The public expects the Government to implement plans in topographic point to assist discourage juveniles from perpetrating offenses, empower households to maintain a edge with their kids. Mentioning from the Children ‘s Act subdivision 75 ( 1 ) , in relation to households assisting juvenile, where a kid or immature individual is charged with an offense or brought before a Magistrate under this Act, his parent or defender may, in any instance, and shall, if he can be found and resides within a sensible distance, be required to go to at the Court before which the instance is heard or determined during all the phases of the proceedings, unless the Court is satisfied that it would be unreasonable to necessitate his attending. The act still helps the kids and immature people by implementing Torahs to assist rehabilitate them by directing wrongdoers to the repressed plan such as, Youth Training Facility, St. Jude ‘s Home for Girls and St. Michael ‘s place for Boys. Harmonizing to the act, a kid shall non be sentenced to imprisonment for any offense or committed to prison in default of payment of a all right, amendss, or costs, A a immature individual shall non be sentenced to imprisonment for any offense. The Government of Trinidad and Tobago besides implemented assorted preventive plans such as: Multi-skill Training Programme, The Youth Training and Employment Partnership Programme, On-The-Job Training, Civilian Conservation Corps, SERVOL, Milat/MyPart, Retraining Programme, these plans pays the juvenile a stipend to larn a trade or develop a accomplishment in legion areas.A Therefore far these plans and the execution of Torahs has aid kids and immature people in the state, a batch is still excessively done but they have impacted positively in the lives of many.A