To understand cultural heritage and reading, it is indispensable to understand the assorted definitions and theories in relation to the construct of cultural heritage.
The term ‘cultural heritage ‘ refers to the “ things, topographic points and patterns that define who we are as persons, as communities, as states or civilisations and as a species ” ( Wedenoja, 2010 ) . In other words, it is the cultural bequest of physical artefacts and intangible properties of a group or society that are inherited from past coevalss, preserved in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future coevalss. It is a bequest which we frequently want to acknowledge and reserve because it strengthens our cultural individuality of sense of who we are as people. However, what is considered cultural heritage by one coevals may be rejected by the following coevals, merely to be revived by a succeeding coevals.
Cultural heritage is non limited to material manifestations. It besides includes living looks and the traditions that groups and communities around the universe have inherited from their ascendants and transmitted to their posterities. Therefore, cultural heritage can be grouped into wide classs: touchable and intangible. Tangible cultural heritage can mention to movable objects and immovable sites. These include archeological sites, artefacts, edifices, historic sites, memorials, Gravess, and culturally important landscapes like sacred topographic points. Landscapes are considered heritage when they have natural characteristics that may hold cultural properties including vegetations and zoologies. Heritage sites like these frequently serve as an of import constituent in a state ‘s tourer industry, pulling many visitants from abroad every bit good as locally. UNESCO[ 1 ]defines intangible cultural heritage as “ aˆ¦the non-physical features, patterns, representations, looks every bit good as cognition and accomplishments that identify and specify a group or civilisation ” ( UNESCO, 2010 ) . These include linguistic communication, unwritten histories, beliefs, patterns, rites, ceremonials, imposts, traditions, music, dance, trades, and other humanistic disciplines.
Heritage that survives from the yesteryear is frequently alone and unreplaceable. This places the duty of saving on the current coevals. Safeguarding cultural heritage has become one of the precedences of international cooperation since 1972 when the General Conference of UNESCO adopted the Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage. There are 878 World Heritage Sites as of 2008. They are located in 145 states and 678 cultural, 174 natural, and 26 assorted sites ( UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 2010 ) . The saving of life heritage has merely become important in 2003 when UNESCO adopted the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage.
( This is the short version — & gt ; still have a batch of item to add because the term cultural heritage is really elaborate and has meant different things in the past decennaries. Unless the professor thinks this is adequate. )
Cultural Heritage and the Challenges of Tourism
In recent old ages, cardinal heritage sites have seen a singular addition ill guided or unguided tourers. Enormous force per unit area has been forced upon countries like Angkor Wat, Luang Prabang or Halong Bay the turning figure of visitants and the general growing in Tourism. International bureaus such as the World Tourism Organization have predicted that touristry Numberss will go on to lift over the following 10 old ages, preponderantly so for the continent of Asia. Such growings in visitant Numberss worsens bing jobs at World Heritage sites which include hooliganism, deficiency of consciousness of cultural and heritage significance of sites, congestion and finish and cultural commodification. As planetary touristry progressively interface with heritage sites, the force per unit areas of meeting challenges will be more marked. In add-on to the negative effects of unguided mass touristry at heritage sites, a rise in niche cultural touristry besides prompts the demand for the preparation of cultural heritage specializer ushers for World Heritage sites. The development of such niche groups of culturally-sensitive and learning-seeking tourers is constituted within the broader developments of what has been termed by touristry faculty members as “ particular involvement touristry ” and the variegation of the touristry market. However, the development of niche cultural touristry is hampered by the widespread deficiency of cultural heritage specializer ushers in Asia-Pacific. In the APETIT meeting in 2002, the preparation of professional ushers was highlighted by UNESCAP and UNESCO as cardinal to betterments in the touristry system and industry.
What is Digitization?
We use the term digitisation to mention to the procedure of change overing physical resources or information into a digital format ( Digitization, 2007 ) . In other words, digitising agencies merely capturing an linear signal in digital signifier. Photos taken with a digital camera, or informations collected by an electronic measurement device are automatically converted into digital signifier. However, text and images that are in a touchable signifier can be digitized with a scanner ( Ibid ) . When scanning texts or images, an optical character acknowledgment plan, besides known as OCR, “ analyzes a text image for light and dark countries in order to place each alphabetic missive or numeral figure, and converts each character into an ASCII codification ” ( Ibid ) . Audio and pictures can besides be digitized by a procedure in which an parallel signal is changed, without altering its indispensable content, into a digital signal ( Ibid ) . The procedure of trying steps the amplitude, or signal strength, of an parallel wave form at equally separated clip markers ( Ibid ) . It besides signifies the samples as numerical values for input as digital informations ( Digitization, 2007 ) . Objects and sites on the other manus necessitate a more complicated procedure. A 3D scanner is utilized to analyse an object or environment. The 3D scanner creates a point of cloud of geometric samples on the surface of the object or site and these points can so be used to digitally retrace the object or site ( 3D Scanner, 2010 ) . Digitized resources can be easy shared through digital devices, equipment, and webs. Despite its many advantages, digital resources still need particular attention and saving as they can go disused. Therefore, everything must be digitized at the highest quality and migrated to the latest storage and formats.
Digitization of an object utilizing a 3D Scanner ( Scribe It, n.d. )
Why Should We Digitize Cultural Heritage?
Cultural Heritage should be digitized for the undermentioned grounds:
Preservation of Tangible Cultural Heritage
Digitization can assist continue touchable cultural heritage including objects and edifices. All objects and the valuable information they contain will be available without endangering their unity by managing or by exposure to the elements. For case, the Stonehenge in Great Britain is utilizing technological reading to conserve the heritage site. Brian Bath provinces in his publication “ The Use of New Technology in the Interpretation of Historic Landscapes ” ( 2006 ) that a monolithic figure of visitants wanted to see every angle of the Stonehenge and if the same figure of visitants came to the site constantly it would “ aˆ¦a menace exposed surface archeology and to the protected lichens on the rock surfaces at land degree ” . Bath ( 2006 ) besides added that it was difficult construing the site without explicating the preservation procedure every bit good. Peoples wanted to see everything but what they did n’t understand was the consequence they would hold on the site. The solution for this affair was engineering. Assorted signifiers of Medias like Cadmiums with 3 theoretical accounts and web-based practical museums were developed in response to help tourers understand about the preservation and reading of the site.
3D/ Virtual Reconstruction of Stonehenge
A batch of people ca n’t go to museums or existent sites whenever they want and even if they could, infinite restraints imposed on museums would merely let them to see a small per centum of available aggregations. Therefore, digitising cultural heritage greatly increases public entree. Furthermore, it besides advances the work of bookmans and research workers worldwide, and opens new chances to pedagogues in every scene. Often, objects reside in multiple topographic points even if they are related. Therefore, digitising full aggregations allows museums to absorb their resources, doing it possible for bookmans working externally to see at a glimpse their complexness and extent of retentions in a given country. Furthermore, digitisation besides allows museums to portion their resources more loosely by incorporating aggregations that have been separated by location across many cultural heritage establishments and research centres. And in conclusion, digitized stuffs besides help museums reach underserved audiences, every bit good as those non motivated to see museums as a beginning of information. For case, twenty old ages ago, pupils had to go to Washington, D.C. to research in the Library of Congress and it was an expensive affair. Now, high school pupils from around the universe have instant entree. In 2003, the Library of Congress reported that about 15 million people visited American Memory. That is more than the figure of people who have worked in the library ‘s reading suites over the past 200 old ages and 1,500 times the figure who yearly use the manuscript reading room ( Cohen & A ; Rosenzweig, 2006 ) .
Digitization allows entree to historical resources that are unaccessible because of their breakability ( Cohen & A ; Rosenzweig, 2006 ) . As an illustration, the original 1791 program for the metropolis Washington is so deteriorated and brittle the Library of Congress does non let research workers to analyze it ( Cohen & A ; Rosenzweig, 2006 ) . But now anyone can see the digital transcript on the library ‘s web site. Not all Library of Congress paperss are rather this fragile, but like many other beginnings, they ca n’t be browsed easy in linear signifier.
L’Enfant ‘s Original City Plan of Washington 1791 L’Enfant ‘s Revised City Plan of Washington 1792
Another benefit of digitising cultural heritage is that it supports instruction. Digitization impacts larning in schoolrooms and everyplace larning takes topographic point. Surveies of cultural heritage can come alive with instant entree to images, sound files and text infusions. Peoples will be able to see things non usually possible in a museum, e.g. researching the interior of a infinite bird in 3D. Furthermore, pedagogues working with cultural heritage can interact virtually with audiences and cultivate forums for researching subjects in more deepness and from changing positions. Lifelong scholars will be able to steer their ain acquisition with aid from museums ‘ digitized aggregations. Overall, digitisation will give public entree to a much greater per centum of museum ‘s huge resources, supplying better tools with which to trip acquisition. Brian Bath ( 2006 ) stated that the Museum of London set-up a web-based practical museum and 40 per centum of the people who visited the site including pupils really came to the museum. As you can see, some people who may hold ne’er had involvement in traveling were appealed.
Enhances Museums ‘ Competitiveness
Digitization can heighten museums ‘ fight by heightening visitants ‘ experience. A survey was carried out by the SITI Research Center of the Queen Margaret University College ( Reino, S. , Mitsche, N. & A ; Frew, A. , 2007 ) in the UK by comparing unrecorded reading and traditional reading at 2 sites, which were Beamish and the Bowes. The consequence was that ICT improved fight of heritage sites by heightening acquisition, amusement and visitant ‘s experience. Beamish which used engineering for reading had an norm of 4 % better results in each class.
Ease of Access for Researchers
In the yesteryear, research workers and bookmans had to digest the thorough procedure of telling up boxes of points in order to happen what they were looking for. Sometimes research workers or bookmans could non analyze the archival paperss ( e.g. , glass home base and movie negatives ) without the anterior transitions into clear or viewable media like prints. On the other manus digitisation allows speedy and easy browse of big aggregations of stuff.
Digitization will assist enrich context of cultural heritage because everything relevant to an object including inside informations, records, and other interpretive informations can be shared. This will enable a richer interaction and heighten user ‘s apprehension of an object or site ‘s context and significance. In add-on, digitisation will enable allows experts to compare artefacts and specimens against those of the digitized museum, well increasing information about these retentions at a greater rate remotely. Equally of import, it allows people around the universe to add extra feelings, associations, and narratives to the lasting record. ( Will add an illustration )
Digitization allows infinite range. It helps people pull multi-media resources from scientific discipline centres, plans, and museums. Drawn resources could be combined in a manner that it could transport an audience back in clip. An audience could potentially see how Tai people were populating 300 old ages ago, or witness conflicts. On the other manus, digitisation could besides allow people see the present as scientists do. For case, an audience could be accessing informations from Bangkok and could be in the Arctic the following minute larning about ice. And last but non least, people could possibly go virtually through infinite, with a position so clear, doing them experience as though they could touch the stars from their armchair. As aforesaid, with digital assets, people would genuinely hold infinite range.
What is Heritage Interpretation?
The Basic Principles of Heritage Interpretation
The Evolution of Heritage Interpretation and New Media
Museums and Their Functions
What are Virtual Museums?
Still losing but will be added:
How can cultural heritage material be digitized?
Optical Character Recognition ( OCR )
Digitizing sound & A ; picture
Cultural Heritage in Thailand
Heritage Interpretation in Thailand
Examples of Heritage Interpretation and New Media in Other States
What is the possibility for Thailand? Is it worth it? Assesing Cost and Timelines.
Problems with Digitizing Cultural Heritage ( Has to be explained in more item and more illustrations )
Three major jobs impede the usage of digital engineering from being a major tool in continuing cultural heritage. The first 1 is the tremendous sum of fiscal resources needed for the scanning procedure, the 2nd 1 is the speedy obsolescence of hardware and package, and the 3rd is the demand for standardisation of tools and interfaces. As a consequence, the work done in this country is largely on a pilot footing, where research workers study the assorted facets of certain topics, physique and experiment with modest undertakings, argument on criterions and set up organizing organic structures.
Forms of Digitization and Their Advantages and Disadvantages
The beginnings of heritage reading day of the month back to the wake of the creative activity of the first natural Parkss at the terminal of the nineteenth century in the United States. However, it was non until 1957, with publication by Freeman Tilden ‘s ‘Interpreting our Heritage ‘ that the foundation of the subject were established.
Although in the early yearss this reading was basically