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Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
Chomsky says that humans possess an “internal language” or set of linguistic principles that are activated for all languages.

Imitation
a learning strategy that young children frequently use to replicate someone’s behaviors, actions, phrases, etc..
One-word stage of language acquisition
children who are at this stage use the strategy of imitation for language development.
Purpose of language
Communication
Phonology
the study of the sound system of a language. (sounds of letters and words)
Phonemes
basic unit of sound.

Phonic Instruction
*graphophonemic relationships*letter-sound associations*letters-sound correspondences*sound-symbol correspondences*sound-spellings
Graphemes
individual letters represent phonemes.(“through” has 7 graphemes/letters that represent only 3 sounds /th,r,u/)
Morphology
the study of the structure of words and word formations.
Morphemes
are the smallest representation of meaning. (“cars” is made up of 2 morphemes-the basic word or root word and the plural morpheme “s”.)
Decode printed material
students need an understanding of the morphology of a language to decode.
Syntax
entails the ways in which words are organized and arranged in a language.

Kernal sentences
specific basic sentence structures.
Lexicon
refers to the vocabulary of a language.(ie. word “hot” has several meanings)
Semantics
meaning is conveyed in a language thru the use of its vocabulary.
Connotation
implied meaning of words and ideas.

Denotation
literal meaning of words and ideas.
Pragmatics
how context can affect the interpretation of communication.
Stage of Language Development
Babbling or Pre-Language Stage 0-6 monthsHolophrastic One-Word Stage 11-19 months2-Word Stage 13-24 monthsTelegrapghic Stage 18-27 months2-3 years 200-300 words then up to 1000
Content Words
high semantic value that can be used in multi situations(ie.

.nouns, adjectives, and verbs)Telegrahic Stage

Function Words
prepostitions and articles are introduced but used limitedly.(Telegrahic Stage)
Pivot
refers to words that can be used to accomplish multiple functions.(ie..

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no,up,all,see,more,and gone)2-Word Stage

Open Class
contains words that are generally used to refer to one concept.(ie…home, milk, doggy, juice, and pants)2-Word Stage
Language Development AGE 2 – 3 YEARS
200-300 words at age 2900-1000 words at age 3Use preposition and pronouns (inconsistantly)By age 3 : use 3-4 word sentences
Language DevelopmentAGE 4
1500 wordsComplex sentence structureUnderstand more than they can verbalize
Language DevelopementAGE 5
2100 wordsWorking knowledge of the grammar of language.Begin to understand time concepts and use verbs.
Language Development6-7 YEARS OLD
2100 words (speaking)20000 words (comprehension)/v/ /th/ /ch/ /sh/ still having problems
Language Development8-12 YEARS OLD
Become language makers in academic settings.
Texas Observation ProtocolTOP
this instrument was designed to assess the language proficiency of ELL in TX.

Language Disorders4 Classifications
Voice, Fluency, Articulation, andLanguage processing.
Voice
pitch, timbre, volumeOne of 4 classification for language disorders.
PhonationUnder VOICE
any kind of abnormality in the vibration of the vocal fold (ie. hoarseness)
ResonanceUnder VOICE
created when sound passes through the vocal tract. (nasal)
Fluency Disorders
condition that affects the ability to produce coherent and fluent communication.2 of 4 classifications of language disorders.

StutteringUnder Fluency Disorders
multiple false starts or the inability to produce the intended sounds.
ClutteringUnder Fluency Disorders
communication in an excessively fast mode that makes comprehension difficult.
Articulation
sound production, most common is lisping3 of 4 classifications of language disorders.
LispingUnder Articulation
produce the sound /s/, /sh/, /z/, /ch/ with tongue between the upper and lower teeth.
Cooperative Learning Procedures
1-Identify2-Research3-Investigate4-Organize5-Present6-Self-eval and Group-eval
Corvilinear
a style that allows speachers the option of deviating form the main topic without being penalized.

The Speaking Checklist
1-Stickes to topic. 2-Builds support for the subject. 3-Speaks clearly 4- Takes turns and waits to talk 5- Talks so others in the group can hear 6-Speaks smoothly 7-Uses courteous language 8-Presents in an organized and interesting way 9-Supports the topical thesis 10-Answers questions effectively11-Is comfortable speaking publicly 12- Maintains listeners’ interest 13-Volunteers to answer in class.
Teaching listening
by providing questions before and after the listening activity.
Language processing disorders
caused by a brain-based disturbance called aphasia. There are 3 types: Receptive, Expressive, and Global.

Receptive Aphasia
“sensory aphasia”results from a lesion to a region in the upper back part of the tempral lobe of the brain. Creates problems with listening comphension and retrieval of words from memory.(ie.

.repeating formulaic phrases and producing unitelligible sequences of words or sounds.)

Expressive Aphasia
results from damage to the lower back part of the frontal lobe.

Affects the speaking ability with problems in articulation and fluency.(ie. very slow speech and short sentences)

Global Aphasia
“irreversible aphasia”a brain-based disorder that affects both the receptive and expressive features of language.No known help for this disorder.
Activities to Promote Oral Communication
Dramatic PlayLanuage Play(rhymes, tongue twisters,songs)Show-and-TellPuppet ShowPair InterviewPresentations
Phonemic Awareness
refers to a child’s ability to understand that words have smaller components called sounds, and that these sounds together create sylables and words.

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