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Piaget’s Four Stages of Mental Development
-Sensorimotor Stage (0-2)-Preoperational Stage —Preconceptual Phrase (2-4)—Intuitive Phase (4-7)-Concrete Operational Stage (7-11)-Formal Operational Stage (12-15)
Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage
Birth – Age 2-Child is most concerned with coordinating movement and action-Words begin to represent people and things
Piaget’s Preoperational Stage
Ages 2-7I) Preconceptual Phase (2-4) – Behavior is based on subjective judgmentII) Intuitive phase (4-7) – Children use language to verbalize their experiences and mental processes
Piaget’s Concrete Operational Stage
Ages 7-11Children begin to apply logic to concrete things and experiences. They can combine performance and reasoning to solve problems.
Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage
Ages 12-15Adolescents begin to think beyond the immediate and to theorize. They apply formal logic to interpreting abstract constructions and to recognizing experiences that are contrary to fact.
Young Adult Literature20th CenturyInfluence of Psychology
-Studies by behaviorists and developmental psychologists shaped selection of literature for children.-Piaget’s ideas still used to evaluate child literature: parallels between physical growth and thinking capacity, adolescent’s heightened moral perspective-Education based on Piaget and Kohlberg implies that development is inherent in human socialization.

Adolescents’ moral judgments – Piaget
After age 11, children stop viewing actions as “right” or “wrong,” weighing intent and the behavior in context.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s 6 Stages of Moral DevelopmentLevel 1 Stage 0
*Hierarchical but not clearly aligned to chronological age-Level 1: Moral values reside in external acts rather than in persons or standards.–Stage 0. Premoral: No association of actions or needs with sense of right or wrong
Lawrence Kohlberg’s 6 Stages of Moral DevelopmentLevel 1 Stage 1
-Level 1: Moral values reside in external acts rather than in persons or standards.–Stage 1.

Obedience and punishment orientation: Child defers to adult authority. The child’s actions are motivated by a desire to stay out of trouble.

Lawrence Kohlberg’s 6 Stages of Moral DevelopmentLevel 1 Stage 2
-Level 1: Moral values reside in external acts rather than in persons or standards.–Stage 2. Right actions/self-interest orientation: Performance of right deeds results in needing satisfaction.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s 6 Stages of Moral DevelopmentLevel 2 Stage 3
Level II. Moral Values reside in maintaining conventions of right behavior.–Stage 3.

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Good person orientation: The child performs right actions to receive approval from others, conforming to the same standards.

Lawrence Kohlberg’s 6 Stages of Moral DevelopmentLevel 2 Stage 4
Level II. Moral Values reside in maintaining conventions of right behavior.–Stage 4. Law and order orientation: Doing one’s duty and showing respect for authority contributes to social order.

Lawrence Kohlberg’s 6 Stages of Moral DevelopmentLevel 3 Stage 5
Level III. Moral values reside in principles separate from the persons or agencies that enforce these principles.–Stage 5. Legalistic orientation: The rules of society are accepted as correct but alterable. Privileges and duties are derived from social contract. Obedience to society’s rules protects the rights of self and others.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s 6 Stages of Moral DevelopmentLevel 3 Stage 5
Level III.

Moral values reside in principles separate from the persons or agencies that enforce these principles.–Stage 6. Conscience orientation: Ethical standards, such as justice, equality, and respect for others, guide moral conduct more than legal rules.

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