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Additive Bilingualism
A process by which individuals develop proficiency in a second language subsequent to or simultaneous with the development of proficiency in the primary language.
Affective Filter
Refers to the effects of personality, motivation, and other affective variables on second language acquisition. These variables interact with each other and with other factors to raise or lower the affective filter.

When the filter is high, the second language learner is not able to adequately process information. This is an imaginary screen that blocks the input if it is up and allows the input to get in if it is down. The lower the anxiety level, the lower the filter.

Aphasia
The loss of all or part of the ability to communicate. It results from injury to or disease of the brain centers responsible for communication. Sometimes the person’s ability to understand is also disturbed.
Apraxia
Impaired ability to organize motor commands to speech musculature which results in improper sequencing of sounds in word production, ie, mispronounced words.

Assessment
An ongoing process aimed at understanding and improving student learning. It involves: making expectations explicit; setting appropriate criteria and high standards; systematically gathering, analyzing, and interpreting evidence to determine how well performance matches expectations and standards; and using the results to improve performance.
Assimilate
To bring into conformity with the customs, attitudes, etc, of a group or nation; to adapt or adjust
Audio-Lingual Method
This is a second language teaching methodology that focuses on practicing drills and memorizing dialogues.

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It is based on F.F. Skinner’s behavioral psychology of conditioned response and structural linguistics. This is a discredited approach and highly inconsistent with the current constructivist paradigm.

Authentic Assessment
A form of assessment in which students are asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills. (Jon Mueller)
Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills(BICS)
Refers to basic communicative fluency achieved by all normal native speakers of a language. BICS are not strongly related to academic performance in formal school contexts. BICS are mastered by age 3 or 4.
Biculturalism
Of or relating to two distinct cultures in one nation or geographic region
Bilingual Education
The programmatic requirement for all LEP students is also an instructional approach in which LEP students are able to learn through their first language in order to keep up with grade level subject matter while simultaneously developing English language skills.
Bilingual Education Program
An organized curriculum that includes: native language development and instruction; second language development and instruction; and an educational program that offers language development and instruction in first and second languages.

Bloom’s Taxonomy
Bloom identified six levels of understanding, from simple recall to evaluation. The six levels are (1) Knowledge; (2) Comprehension; (3) Application; (4) Analysis; (5) Synthesis; and (6) Evaluation.
Borrowing
Words incorporated from one language into another. Usually this occurs in closely related languages where a word is borrowed that resembles the native word but has a different meaning.

The borrowed word may then take on the meaning of the native words as well as retain its own.

Cluttering
Rapid, garbled speech with extra or mispronounced sounds and sometimes mixed-up sentence structure.
Code Switching
Code switching is an active and creative process of incorporating elements from two languages in the communication process. It involves a shifting from one language to another.
Cognitive Academic language ProficiencyCALP
Refers to aspects of language proficiency strongly associated with literacy and cognitive development. CALP is strongly related to academic performance in formal school contexts.

It is the kind of language needed to learn new information, think in more abstract ways, and carry out more “cognitively” demanding communicative tasks required by the core curriculum.

Communicative-based ESL
Focus is on language functions, i.e., the purpose of using the language is used, not language from. Refers to a second language instructional approach in which the goals, teaching methods, techniques, and assessments of students progress are all based on behavioral objectives defined in terms of abilities to communicative messages in the target language.

Comprehensible Input
This notion refers to input that is just a level above what the learner knows. The formula of i+1 represents comprehensible input where the “i”stands for what the learner knows and “1” represents just a little bit above that. Input is made comprehensible by context, paralinguistic clues, speech modification, and building on prior knowledge.
Comprehensible Second Language Input
Refers to understandable and meaningful language directed at second language learners under optimal conditions. Characterized by language the L2 learner already knows plus a range of new language made comprehensible in formal schooling contexts by the use of certain planned strategies, such as focus on communicative content rather than language forms; frequent use of concrete contextual references; and lack of restriction on L1 use by L2 learners, especially in the initial stages.

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