The teacher models a concept. The students then form groups and take turns leading small-group discussions about the concept to each other.
Teachers join together (cooperate) to teach a concept.
Teachers provide temporary support to a student who is not ready to perform a task independently. As the student gains confidence/skill, this support is slowly taken away until the student can function independently.
The teacher demonstrates how to do something, then has the student do it. (I.e. “I do it; I do it, you help; You do it, I help; You do it”) (I.e. “I do it; We do it; You do it.”)
Students are encouraged to ask questions, and the teacher (rather than answering them) simply asks more questions.
The teacher asks a question, and the students think about it. Then they pair up to discuss their thoughts. Then they share their conclusions with the class.
Students are assigned to a group (e.g. Group 1). They then leave this group and form a new group (Group 2). No two students from Group 1 can be in the same Group 2. Each of these new groups is given a topic to become an “expert” on. The students talk among themselves and do research, etc., to become as knowledgeable as they can about their topic. Students then return to their original group and teach the others what they’ve learned.
By pausing (for about a minute) after asking a question, teachers will generate longer and more thoughtful answers from their students.