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Adequate Yearly Progress
a component of the ESEA legislation that requires states and school systems to collect annual data that represents the progress of students in meeting established assessment goals or progress in key subject areas
Alternative Assessment
All types of assessment other than standardized tests
Anecdotal Record
A written account of a specific incident or behavior in the c/r
The collection of data, such as test scores and informal records, to measure student achievement
Authentic Assessment
A measurement of a student’s performance on activities that reflect real-world learning experiences
Cloze Procedure
A technique in which the teacher deletes words or other structures from a passage and leaves blanks in their places. The students then fill in the blanks by suing the surrounding context to determine missing material
Criterion Referenced Tests
a test designed to yield measurements interpretable in terms of specific performance standards
Formative Assessment
ongoing assessment designed to offer feedback on progress for both the teacher and the learner
Informal Reading Inventory
informal instrument designed to help the teacher determine a child’s independent, instructional, frustration,and capacity levels
an unexpected oral reading response that deviates from the text
Norm-Referenced Test
a test designed to yield results interpretable in terms of a norm, the average or mean results of a sample population
a collection of work or artifacts gathered over a period of time
A set of criteria used to describe and evaluate a student’s level of proficiency in a particular subject area
Running Record
A strategy for recording miscues during a student’s oral reading
Summative Assessment
administered at the end of an instructional unit or time period; often used to summarize progress of students as they complete their involvement in the learning task
Consonant Blend
2 or more adjacent consonant letters whose sounds are blended together, with each individual sound retaining its identity
consonant diagraph
2 adjacent consonant letters that represent a single speech sound
vowel sounds that are so closely blended that they can be treated as single vowel units for the purposes of word identification
written symbol that represents a phoneme
consonants or consonant clusters at the beginning of a syllable
smallest unit of sound in a language
phonemic awareness
an understanding that speech consists of a series of small units of sound, or phonemes
association of speech sounds with printed symbols
vowels, or vowel combinations and any consonants that follow
Vowel Diagraph
2 adjacent vowel letters that represent a single speech sound
comparisons of 2 similar relationships stated in the form of author is to book as artist is to painting
a pair of words that have opposite meanings
classification into related groups
context clues
clues to word meanings or pronunciations found in the surrounding words or sentences
substitution of a less offensive word or phrase for an unpleasant term or expression
figurative language
non-literal language
words that have identical spellings, but different meanings
pairs or groups of words that are spelled differently but are pronounced alike
group of words that, taken as a whole, has a meaning different from that of the sum of meanings of individual words
a direct comparison not using like or as
giving attributes of a person to an inanimate object or abstract idea
a preexisting knowledge structure (cluster of information) developed about a thing, place, or idea
semantic maps
graphic representations of relationships among words and phrases in written material
comparison using like or as
groups of words that have the same, or very similar, meanings
anticipation guides
sets of declarative statements related to materials about to be read that are designed to stimulate thinking and discussion
a person’s knowledge of the functioning of his or her own mind and conscious efforts to monitor or control this functioning
think alouds
verbalizing aloud the thought processes present as one reads a selection orally
literal comprehension
understanding ideas that are directly stated
propaganda techniques
techniques of writing used to influence people’s thinking and actions
picturing events, places, and people described by the author
nonfiction literature that provides an account or partial account of a person’s life
brief moral tales in which animals or inanimate objects speak
a genre of literature including highly imaginative, fictional stories, with fanciful or supernatural elements
stories that are not true, written in a narrative style, for the purpose of entertainment
a subcategory of traditional literature. identified by motifs or themes. characters are often animals or humans.
traditional literature selections that feature characters such as gods, heroes, or supernatural beings
realistic fiction
invented or imagined stores that could have happened because they have believable story elements, such as realistic characters and settings
science fiction
a fictional story based upon current or imagined technological or scientific advancements
traditional literature
a literary genre of stories, without identified authors, which are passed from generation to generation through oral narration
writing process
a student-centered procedure for writing

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