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decision making about student performance and/or appropriate teaching strategies
evaluation expressed in quantitative terms
procedures used to obtain information about student performance
Educational Assessment
Collecting, Interpreting, & Synthesizing Information – Why?
make decisions about students
give students feedback about progress, strengths, & weaknesses
judge instructional effectiveness
inform educational policy
Norm-referenced Assessment
comparing a students’ scores with those of other students
Common comparison groups:
Class or school
School district
State or national samples
Criterion-referenced Assessment
assessing student mastery to a prescribed set of criteria
Tell teachers what students can and cannot do.
Criterion-Referenced Grading
Mastery of objectives
Criteria for grades set in advance
Student determines what grade they want to receive
All students could receive an “A”
Norm-Referenced Grading
Grading on the curve
Students compared to other students
“Average” becomes the anchor for other grades
Fairness issue
“Adjusting” the curve
Is the test measuring what it is supposed to be measuring
How well a test measures what it purports to measure
test MUST be reliable
Consistency with which a test measures whatever it’s measuring
A test can be reliable, but NOT valid
Enhancing reliability
Include several tasks
Clearly define tasks
Avoid assessing students’ learning when they are ill
Administer assessment under similar condition for all students
Identify criteria for evaluating performance
Planning for Testing
Test frequently
Test soon after learning
Preview ready-made tests
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Knowledge
list, read, identify, define, describe, name, select (REMEMBER)
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Comprehension
translate,summarize, classify, discuss, explain (UNDERSTAND)
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Application
apply, assess, construct, predict, transfer
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Analysis
analyze, contrast, compare, distinguish, discriminate
Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives: Synthesis
propose, plan, design, formulate, modify (create)
Bloom’s Taxonomy of
Educational Objectives: Evaluation
judge,argue, appraise, conclude, critique (evaluate)
how are you doing
how did you do
Formative Assessment
Ungraded testing
Before or during instruction
Guides teacher in planning
Helps students identify areas that need work
Summative Assessment
Final exam or final project
Let the teacher & student know the level of accomplishment attained
End of chapter, midterms, final exam
Purpose is to determine final achievement
Determine mastery
assesses basic knowledge & skills in relative isolation from typical real-world tasks.
assesses the ability to use knowledge and skills in tasks usually similar to those in the outside world
assess prior knowledge
teacher observations
instructional feedback
planned in advance
part of grading system
traditional or authentic?

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