-Behavioral Perspectivemotivated by external factorsSocial rewardsActivity rewardsTangible rewardsneed to be enticed & proddedinterested in easy tasks
Humanistic & cognitive perspectivemotivated by factors within themselvesengage in activity because it gives them pleasureengage in assignments willinglyeager to learn classroom material
Emphasizes personal freedom, choice, self-determination, & striving for personal growthstresses the importance of intrinsic motivation and the role of needsNeed for competence/achievement – need to feel competent & capableNeed for autonomy – desire to have our own wishes
Social Cognitive View
Setting goalsDirects attention to taskEnergizes effortIncreases persistencePromotes the development of new knowledge & strategies
goal orientations-focus on task rather than ability; seek to improve performance; enjoy challenges; task-involved learners
goal orientations- concerned with outcomes; seek ways to protect themselves; ego-involved learners
goal orientations- want to finish fast or avoid work
goal orientations- nonacedemic activities compete with schoolwork
Daleesha doesn’t have her lab manual – again, so she has to share with another student. Then she pretends to be working, but spends most of her time making fun of the assignment or trying to get answers from other students when your back is turned. She is afraid to try because if she makes an effort and fails, she fears that everyone will know she is “dumb.
Stresses importance of interpretations of external eventsbehavior is determined by our thinking, not rewardsmotivated by basic need to understand our environment
Everyone has strong needs to understand why something occursInterpretations have strong motivational effects
Attribution Theory Characteristics
Characteristics of success/failurecause is seen as internal/externalseen as stable/unstableperceived as controllable or not
Students who perceive their success as being due to internal factors (i.e., effort) are more likely to have higher self-esteem.
If a student attributes positive outcome to a stable cause, there is an expectation of future success.
Failure due to external factors causes anger.
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