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Extrinsically motivated

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-Behavioral Perspective

motivated by external factors

Social rewards

Activity rewards

Tangible rewards

need to be enticed & prodded

interested in easy tasks

Intrinsic Motivation

Humanistic & cognitive perspective

motivated by factors within themselves

engage in activity because it gives them pleasure

engage in assignments willingly

eager to learn classroom material

Humanistic perspective

Emphasizes personal freedom, choice, self-determination, & striving for personal growth

stresses the importance of intrinsic motivation and the role of needs

Need for competence/achievement – need to feel competent & capable

Need for autonomy – desire to have our own wishes

Social Cognitive View
Setting goals
Directs attention to task
Energizes effort
Increases persistence
Promotes the development of new knowledge & strategies
Mastery –
goal orientations-focus on task rather than ability; seek to improve performance; enjoy challenges; task-involved learners
goal orientations- concerned with outcomes; seek ways to protect themselves; ego-involved learners
Work-avoidant –
goal orientations- want to finish fast or avoid work
goal orientations- nonacedemic activities compete with schoolwork
Performance Orientation
Daleesha doesn’t have her lab manual – again, so she has to share with another student. Then she pretends to be working, but spends most of her time making fun of the assignment or trying to get answers from other students when your back is turned. She is afraid to try because if she makes an effort and fails, she fears that everyone will know she is “dumb.”
Cognitive Perspective
Stresses importance of interpretations of external events
behavior is determined by our thinking, not rewards
motivated by basic need to understand our environment
Attribution Theory
Everyone has strong needs to understand why something occurs
Interpretations have strong motivational effects
Attribution Theory Characteristics
Characteristics of success/failure
cause is seen as internal/external
seen as stable/unstable
perceived as controllable or not
Students who perceive their success as being due to internal factors (i.e., effort) are more likely to have higher self-esteem.
If a student attributes positive outcome to a stable cause, there is an expectation of future success.
Failure due to external factors causes anger. Failure due to internal factors may cause guilt.
Goals for Teachers
create a state of motivation to learn
develop in students the trait of being motivated to learn
Memory Tasks
Recognize/reproduce information
use algorithm to get right answer
go a step beyond/transform information
ask students to state a preference
Stimulating Motivation to Learn
Model interest in learning
Project intensity & enthusiasm
Induce interest
Reduce anxiety
Boost curiosity
Help students generate their own motivation
Emphasize concept of improving one’s ability

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