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Scientists harnessed the natural abilities of the common fly to recycle and break down waste and to make It Into a valuable protein source. Clients came up with the Idea to use flies In a nutrient recycling process to produce protein for animal feed. The proverbial term “Swatting two flies with one blow’ was accomplished as they used waste for the cycle getting rid of waste products. From the initial breakthrough in research, other uses for fly farming were discovered.

The full potential of this unusual farming experience is still unknown as there is still a lot of unexplored ground. Born in London, Jason Drew is an international business leader and serial entrepreneur-turned-environmentalist and author. Jason Dress Eureka moment was hardly the stuff of a soft-focus Hollywood movie. It came from standing at a dam of blood at the back of an abattoir. Surrounding that dam were millions of flies. He realized that these waste nutrients were in fact a natural feedstock for these flies.

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Dress comment was,”Having as a young boy fished with a fly on the end of the line or a larvae on the end of a hook, I put two and two together and, with the enormous input of a number of collaborators here in South Africa and around the world, we are now at the point of profitably recycling waste nutrients and, at the same time, saving our seas. ” Black soldier fly(BBS – in future will be referred to as BBS)eggs take approximately four days to hatch and are typically deposited in crevices or on surfaces above or adjacent to decaying matter such as manure or compost. The larvae range in size from 18-34 inch (3-19 mm).

Although they can be stored at room temperature for several weeks, their longest shelf life is achieved at 50-60 OF (10-16 co). The adult fly, which measures about 16 mm (5/8 inch), is a mimic, very close in size, color, and appearance to the organ pipe mud dauber wasp and its relatives. The mimicry of this particular kind of wasp is especially enhanced in that the fly’s antennae are elongated and wasp-like, the fly’s hind tarsier pale, as are the wasp’s, and the fly has two small transparent “windows” in the basal abdominal segments that make the fly appear to have a narrow “wasp waist”.

The adult soldier fly has no functioning mouthpart; it spends its time searching for mates and reproducing. The adult’s life pan is 5 to 8 days. Adult – This dusky-winged, nonvoting fly is 15 to 20 mm long. Primarily black, the second abdominal segment. The male’s abdomen is somewhat bronze in color. Egg – About 1 mm long, the elongate-oval egg is pale yellow or cream colored when newly laid but darkens with time. Each egg mass contains about 500 eggs. Larva – The black soldier fly larva is plump, slightly flattened, with a tiny, yellowish to black head.

The skin is tough and leathery. Creamy white and about 1. 8 mm long when newly hatched, the larva develops through six instars, the last of which is reddish-brown. The mature larva is about 18 mm long and 6 mm wide, although some individuals may be as long as 27 mm. Premium – The motile pupa develops within the darkened skin of the last larval instars (premium). The pupa is about one-third the length of the premium. Establishing a large-scale fly farm is not nearly as easy as it seems.

Aggregation (leader in this business and on-going research) grows larvae using three different types of flies: the common housefly (Unsystematic), the black soldier fly (Hermetic) and the blowfly (Chlorinated family). The flies feed on specific types of organic waste. The common housefly and the blowfly feed on abattoir waste, whereas the black soldier fly prefers materials that contain carbohydrates, such as manure and vegetable matter. A fly farm consists of enormous fly cages which are geared towards the large-scale laying and collection of eggs.

The eggs are removed from the cages, but with a portion retained in order to maintain a breeding stock. The eggs taken from the cages are combined with waste nutrients (to feed on) on a conveyor belt system. Each fly will lay up to 1 000 eggs and each kilogram of eggs will turn into 380 keg of larvae within 72 hours -depending on the species. The larvae are dried and milled. This protein is provided in a form similar to that of fishmeal – magical – for inclusion in the palpitating operations of feed producers. Aggregation already sells magical in small quantities.

However, the key is to deliver massive quantities, as required by industrial agricultural businesses. After allowing flies to lay eggs in the bio-waste, the resultant larvae, or maggots, are harvested and dried before being mixed with carbohydrates and starch to create food for chickens, crayfish, abalone and pigs. This new industry can produce 60th of protein per hectare, compared with ender tofu protein in a typical agricultural setting. Many uses for this unusual farming practice were already discovered research in operation. Changing research will, in time, reveal more uses. Current uses are: A.

Composting- Waste Removal The spent substrates of maggot are used as fertilizer to directly fertilize plants in the field (e. G. Ring application in mango, banana, and pawpaw plantation). In farm yard manure, the spent substrates are incorporated into the compost production. There are pros and cons to any composting method, whether it employs soil bacteria, worms or black soldier flagstone to do the Job. Maggot composting can work well if too small for a standard composting bin. Larvae can also be useful if you have lots of pet faces – including from dogs, cats, pigs and chickens – to dispose of.

It is disgusting but true that BBS will readily consume fresh animal droppings, neutralize the bad bacteria in those droppings and produce finished compost safe for your garden. But maggots are less useful if you compost mostly yard trimmings or desire heaps of finished compost for gardening use. They should not be added to a worm composting bin, unless you wish to bid your worms adieu. BBS larvae wont eat live worms, but they will eat the ones that have starved to death in their company. The soil amendment left by BBS can be added to garden beds or fed to captive worms.

The larvae are nutritious feed for reptiles, pigs and farmed fish, as well as domestic poultry. If left to their own devices, mature BBS larvae will crawl away from the colony to pupate, scattering in all directions as they find tiny nooks in which to hide. USER International has designed both home- and restaurant-size compost bins that provide little ramps for the departing larvae to ascend. Those ramps end in a drop- if that plops the migrating maggots into a collection cup, making it easier to use them as livestock or pet feed.

In warm-winter areas, maggot bins can be maintained year-round. BBS larvae thrive best at a temperature of 80 to 90 degrees, and languish or die at temperatures much more than 100 degrees. Adult flies need sunlight to breed, and home larvae bins must generally be left outside in a protected spot. During this process where larvae are used to break down waste, all the organic waste eaten – an astonishing amount – is converted into natural compost. The liquid part is seed to replace urea fertilizer while the remaining part is used as soil conditioner, adding organic material to the soil.

A sustainable alternative to fishmeal and Soya livestock feeds have been developed, in the process helping to ease the pressure on precious natural resources which are constantly under strain from the growing human population. Maggot meal is a completely natural protein feed for animals. Maggot meal is obtained by harvesting fly larvae fed on organic waste Just before the insects turn into pupae. To make one ton of the meal, about five tons of maggots are required. The larvae are dried and then processed into a fine rich brown powder, to be sold to farmers in 50-kilogram bags.

In terms of nutrient value the product matches that of fishmeal and is superior to Soya. These current protein sources are limited and the increasing demand for animal feed and their exploitation has devastating effects on the environment. This motivated Aggregation to develop and test a new large-scale natural and sustainable source of protein – they use existing abattoir waste products to feed fly eggs as they grow into larvae, which are then harvested and dried into Magical – with an equivalent nutritional composition to fishmeal and better than soy.

Magical contains nine essential amino acids with higher Sistine and similar levels of lysine, methadone, throne and troposphere as marine fishmeal. 1. Food for fish ranks of farmed fish. Farm-raised salmon, trout and shrimp need a lot of animal protein in their diet. Right now, that protein comes mainly from small, wild fish that are turned into fish meal. It takes about 3 pounds offish to produce 1 pound of farmed salmon, and as we continue to deplete wild fish stocks, fisheries experts say we’re going to run out.

Maggot and its bio-products have been used for the production of bodiless and other products. Larva-driven propositioning may be a promising biotechnology featured with remarkable advantages of waste reduction. D. Protein Recycling – Nutrients Aggregation is leading the creation off new industry, namely that of nutrient recycling. Wastes are taken from slaughterhouses and the blood and guts fed to the larvae of flies. The eggs hatch into larvae, the wastes are fed to the larvae and then the larvae is sold, in competition to other protein sources, as an animal feed for fish ND chickens.

Increases in global food demand and pressing environmental challenges have caused prices of both fishmeal and Soya feeds to soar in recent years. Fishmeal, for example, has on average almost tripled in price since 2002, according to the Undermine data portal. Using organic waste to create a new source of protein – such as animal protein feed – is one way in which we can save the world’s declining fish resources. At the Aggregation plant the flies are fed waste from abattoirs. This natural way of disposing of the waste also helps the suppliers to cut down on their costs.

To ensure success of the venture, the company runs two programmer, for breeding and production. Under natural conditions one female fly can lay about 750 eggs a week and the larva increases in weight by over 400 times in just a few days. Maggots are harvested Just before the papal stage, or after about 72 hours. They are then dried, milled and packed. Because birds and fish eat larvae in the wild, the magical is easily digested. Maggot has been found to be useful in medicine as it is used for the production of antibiotics such as antibacterial, anti-fungal drugs etc. For the treatment of various sissies or infections such as dermatological diseases (eczema, rashes, pimples etc. ) and infectious diseases(streptococcal, concoct etc. ). Written records have documented that maggots have been used since antiquity as a wound treatment (Whitaker et al. , 2007). Stevedore et al. , (2007) reported that maggot therapy is an efficient medical means of healing wounds and has shown to inhibit and destroy a wide range of pathogenic bacteria including melancholic- resistant Staphylococcus reassures (MRS.), group A and B Streptococci, and gram- positive aerobic and anaerobic strains.

In 2008, a scientific study published in the British medical Journal compared the merits of maggot therapy and standard hydro gels to treat 270 British patients with leg ulcers from around the I-J. The study revealed no significant differences on the time taken for the ulcer to heal or the patient’s quality of life. Scott Morris (2003) reported the usefulness of maggots in animals. He further revealed that maggots were used to clean dead tissue from animal wounds and are helpful particularly with chronic storytelling, chronic ulcer and other pus-producing infections that are frequently caused by chafing due to ark equipment.

In January 2004, the US food and drug administration (FDA) granted to produce and market maggots for use in humans or animals as a prescription only medical device for the following indication; “For debarring non-healing necrotic skin and soft tissue wounds, including pressure ulcers, venous stasis ulcer, neurotic foot ulcers, and non-healing traumatic or post-surgical wounds”. In February 2004, the British National Health Service (NUNS) permitted its doctors to prescribe maggot therapy. This entire project is based on the principle of sustainability.

It promotes the maintenance of our water quality since we take waste from the system and prevent contamination of ground water and surface water. In addition to this, nutrients are harvested from a potential risk source but the nutrients are not a risk – it does not hold pathogens and toxins. The product is therefore a very good protein source for animals, while the byproducts can be used in various fields. The possibility of harvesting enzymes on a massive scale is being investigated, especially seeing that Africa is struggling to cope with diabetes and the medicine for its treatment being so expensive.

Since specific enzymes are harvested, it can be used to treat diabetic wounds and avoid operations. This will enhance people’s quality of life. These insects also possess anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative characteristics. Danish researchers are specifically interested in this. We suspect it will also be strengthening the immune system of animals feeding on this. Animals will consequently not become ill and therefore not have to use medicine. As far as biochemical sustainability is concerned, filters made from chitin can be used to remove heavy metals from water systems.

Chitin is used to harvest uranium on the ocean bed to be made available for nuclear reactors. We are therefore returning to nature’s original intention and rediscovering that which had initially been bred in nature. Because we can recycle our nutrients, we do not have to wait until it becomes ammonia and then return via the system to plants, and then to animals. We can harvest it before it enters the atmosphere, and the processes produce no methane. And as long as there are people who eat, there will be waste and therefore a source from which to make protein and other byproducts.

This is the highest form of sustainability because one recycles. Whether you do it on a small scale in your eaten by birds,or whether you do it on a large scale by feeding farm animals – the value added to the environment is phenomenal. The advantages of fly farming far outweighs the challenges experienced in these operations. Advantages are: Using different processes and fly families, Aggregation has developed larvae of naturally different chemical and mineral composition. These minerals are bio- available to the animals eating them.

This opens up the possibility of creating a whole range of specialist feed preparations targeted at specific lifestyles of industrially farmed livestock. Inexpensive due to the use of waste products and flies being readily available. Sustainable due to the low costs in starting up and maintaining theses farms. Recycles waste products- Using the fly’s natural ability to turn waste into useful proteins Kills bacteria – High temperateness’s from the process that necessary to kill off certain bacteria.

Bacteria can also not survive within the intestines of the common house fly due to specific enzymes present. It also reduces the potential hazardous landfill of the waste now used to feed the flies. If the waste is taken out of landfill sites, out of disposal sites and fed to the larvae, these pathogens are prevented from going into our ground water, from going into our surface water, from contaminating what we are so reliant on. Maggots might be the answer to more than Just the ocean. With a simple formula of flies and thousands of litter of blood, it could revolutionist the chicken industry.

Testing with the University of Statelessness Animal Nutritional Department has proved that larvae protein produces better take on weight and lower gizzard erosion scores when feeding fish and chickens this natural food rather than current industrial alternatives. Aggregation creates natural feed for these animals from bio- available waste. Fly farming should, however, also make business sense -and it does. At current fishmeal prices, each plant with a design output of 28 t a day is set to generate turnover of more than RI 27. 5-million a year, says Drew.

Aggregation is already producing magical and believes it can be done at around $900 a ton, competing effectively with fishmeal, which trades at around $2 000 a ton. As the price of fishmeal continues to rise, the fly business would continue to benefit. There is market attention for 1 500 similar plants around the world to meet the current and growing need for protein to feed the animals that are feeding the world’s expanding population. Due to the newness of the project, many challenges are still being experienced. This is but a few already identified: Scalability and designing the engineering processes.

Maintaining a fly colony all year round has also been problematic, as is ensuring an environment that maximizes the growth rate of eggs into larvae. Temperature, humidity, light and density all play a role to keep the flies happy and breeding. To produce a big enough volume to meet the demand. The main challenge was to develop an engineering solution to ensure that all food abattoir waste and fly larvae create sustainable, natural animal feed. The biggest problem currently faced by the fly-farm project is consumer ignorance.

Consumers are okay with the fact that hectares of rain forests are cut down to produce genetically modified Soya, or that millions of litter of diesel are used to travel out to sea to catch fish to produce fishmeal to feed fish at fish farms, this while the natural food of animals are grains and insects. They cringe at the fly larvae in their garbage cans, which is simply a by- reduce of a mismanaged food-system. A great deal of time was spent, as well as trial and error to get the flies to live together in such substantial volumes and lay their eggs in one place.

Matching the waste product type to the larvae type is also problematic. A housefly, for example, can lay 1,200 eggs in her lifetime and is a good consumer of almost all abattoir waste; while BBS have the enzymes to break down very starchy waste like vegetables. Aggregation built an operational mid-scale fly farm and larvae growth facility – with an output of at per week of larvae protein – near Cape Town in 2010. They have cages where their breeding stock are fed a mixture of sugar and milk powder and kept in a very sterile environment.

A single female fly can lay 750 eggs in under a week, which will hatch into larvae that grow in weight over 400 times in Just a few days. Larvae go through three life stages in a 72-hour period: from egg to larvae (wriggling), pupates into hard shells (hatching) and through metamorphosis into the next generation (maturity). The main challenge was to develop an engineering solution to ensure that all of the eggs are the same age at the same time – as older larvae kill off younger larvae.

We also employ a different regime in terms of feeding; heating, moisture and air extraction control every 12 hours to suit their life stage development and to promote optimum growth. “We extract the larvae from the growth trays at 72 hours, dry them in a fluorides bed dryer, mill them into flake form and then pack them according to customers’ preferences. VIII. Future developments There are the other uses for fly farming that holds potential and requires some explaining and future developments: production.

The chitin in the larvae can also be used in the manufacturing of filters seed in harvesting uranium from the sea, as well as to take heavy metals out of polluted water and produce biodegradable plastic. Biomedical speaking, the larvae have value in the production of cholesterol medication, without the side-effects seen in current medicines. The enzymes in the larvae can also be used to heal diabetic sores. Fly larvae also carry intonation, antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties that are Just waiting to be researched.

Jason Drew, with an entrepreneurial mind, also pointed out that maggots, while feeding, can produce temperature of up to 45 agrees by themselves. “We could run heating pipes through our maggots to heat our water,” adds Drew, highlighting Just another potential use of Maggots. Scientists are also investigating the probability to recycle fruit waste in the Langford. All the fruit that are not processed into Juice or packed, land up in a production unit for the production of larvae.

The larvae will be returned in the form of free-range chickens, and egg and pork production. Season workers are suffering because the fruit industry is seasonal, so this will also provide them with more sustainability. Many other waste streams, for instance waste from dairies, have also been identified. They are also busy with a project which entails investigating the ability of these insects to break down human pit toilet waste, as well as pig, chicken and horse manure. For many years we have tried killing insects, instead of nurturing them.

We completely misunderstood them – they have a special ability to break down our waste and take the nutrients from that before it can become detrimental to the environment. ‘X. Conclusion Fly farming appears to be the solution for a few environmental and food scarcity halogens that every country worldwide experience. Besides theses obvious benefits, there is likely to be an on-going research already revealed. Who would have thought that the common fly has got so much potential? In spite of the environmental and economic opportunities maggot farming holds, producers are being very cautious.

They are taking their time to industrialist and commercialism the process of fly farming as you have to be fairly careful on our planet when you start to industrialist things because you can mess things up really seriously, as they did in the early days with chicken production and cow production. We, as humans, see flies as a nuisance, but God made everything with a purpose. Purpose is connected to talent. Talent is that something you do best. What do flies do best? They turn waste into something useful. Maybe we should say, “Go to the flies, you lazy dude, and consider their ways”.

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