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Stigma Paper According to Rosenberg and Travis, “the term stigma comes from ancient Greece, “where It meant a “bodily sign designed to expose something unusual and bad about the moral status of [an Individual] (p. 34)” It was also stated that “stigmatize people are those “marked” as bad, unworthy, and polluted because of the category they belong to, for example, because of their disability, or their disability, or their race, sex, sexual orientation, or social class category (p. 34). I don’t know if I agree with the moral aspect of the definition as, I personally, define stigma as the worth, or lack hereof, that a society places on a group or individual based on external factors.

Any individual, group or society that is considered stigmatize, is ostracizes from society (in various degrees) and for various reasons. Some of the most common reasons throughout history have been disability (rather perceived or real), race, sex, ethnicity, gender, social class and sexual orientation.There are many different group of people who are stigmatize, within a given society, for many deferent reasons.

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Because there are so many defendant “stigma groups” and so much variation, I am ongoing to focus on the most commonly stigmatize groupings which are based on people’s race, their ethnicity, their sex, gender differences, social-class status, their sexual orientation and disabilities. According to the “Mixed-Race” article In the text, “Historically, “race” was grounded in the myth of biologically separate, exclusive, and distinct populations (p. 2). ” The article suggest that the majority of African- Americans have, on average, 14th European genes based on their ancestry.

America is also referred to as “a melting-pot” of race and culture, which is why there are so any multi-racial individuals and mixed-race families. There are some issues that naturally arise with mixed race families and individuals as they sometimes feel confused about their racial identities.Many times this can lead multi-racial individuals feeling like they do not know which “part to play” in society and/or feeling completely ostracizes from not feeling Like they completely fit into any specific racial category. I am of the pollen that race Is somewhat of an outdated concept as many people are now a combination of different races and Identify themselves more based n culture and socio-economic status. Further, when one considers the fact that race has very little to do with culture, especially in America where culture and race are intertwined and have no barriers, race is a lot less distinguishing factor.According to “Race” and the Constructions of Human Identity’ by Audrey Smelled, “Ethnic groups have always existed in the sense that clusters of people living in demarcated areas develop lifestyles and language features that distinguish them from others and they perceive themselves as being separate societies with distinct social histories (p.

6). ” This article particularly focuses on the Asian experience in America and how they are becoming Increasingly polarize.Up until the sass’s, Asian-American immigrants were largely polarize due to underestimations and being Isolated Into specific ethnic groups, namely, Japanese, Chinese and Filipino people. Due to Increasing delimitation and a lack of representation, they created the Pan-Aslant ethnicity to create a united front. The Pan-Asian American movement’s purpose was equality. They have not been as successful as a collective group due to in-house agreements, due to differences in cultural/ethical customs and norms.I don’t necessarily think that a “united front” is the best solution as there are considerable cultural differences in Asian, Japanese, Korean and Filipino cultures.

At this point, they all have a large enough American population that they could all form their own groups with the same purpose and have a lot more productivity as they will no longer have the barrier of cultural misunderstandings. I would define a person’s sex based on their biological reproductive system. That being said, there are many exceptions o the traditional means of determining one’s sex.In Alice Dredger’s article “Where’s the Rulebook for Sex Verification? ,” she states that, “the biology of sex is a lot more complicated that the average fan (person) believes.

Many think that simply look at a person’s sex chromosomes (p. 123). ” This article goes on to discuss how many people are born with both sex organs and their sexual development is based purely on hormones, or a lack there of.

In some cases both male and female genitalia are fully developed. In this article they discuss Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome, where omen have both an X and a Y chromosome due to a lack of androgen hormones.These women also suffer from a lack of body hair, a lack of muscle and brain growth as a result of the hormone deficiency. With this syndrome, “a person can look male- typical on the outside but be female-typical on the inside, or vice versa (p. 123). ” Unlike sex, gender is not physical nor is it biological.

.. Gender is defined purely based on how an individual sees his or herself. The majority of times those who are and appear to be males identify with masculinity and see themselves as males and males usually identify with femininity and see themselves as females.

Gender is usually dictated by what is considered standard behavior for a male or female in any given culture or society. It is generally argued that gender differences are completely socialized and that males and females do not have any inherent differences. The text poses the question, “If gender varies across cultures, over historical time, among men and women within any one culture, and over the life course, can we really speak of masculinity or femininity as though they were constant, universal essence, common o all women and all men (p. 118)? I believe that males are inherently more protective and aggressive while females are naturally more nurturing and compassionate. Not saying that this is the case for everyone, but as a whole, I tend to agree with this concept.

However, the issues arise when men and women are socialized to display these natural characteristics in negative ways based on colonization from the media, family and peers. Social class is determined by one’s economic capabilities as well as their power (relationships with other influential people). In Michael Swig’s article What’s Class Got to Do with It? ” he described the concept of class as the following: “We are of course all individuals, but our individuality and personal life chances are shaped – limited or enhanced – by the economic and social class in which we have grown up and in which we exist as adults (p. 130). ” This article goes on to describe the differences in the various classes. There are working class individuals who are generally, blue-collar and white-collar (low level) employees who have very little effect on the management or pace of their work environment.They are generally in the reduction and distribution of goods, service industries, skilled/unskilled laborers the middle of the general income distribution.

Mostly referring to people who work for a wage but are able to live comfortable, modest lives. This is the largest socio- economic class, so it can range anywhere from a well compensated, unionized laborer or lower management all the way to small business owners who employ up to 500 people. Then there is the upper class or “ruling class” who generally own large businesses and corporations that employ more than 500 people.These are the Coo’s, Coffs, and board members who are legitimately rich and have a tremendous reach as far as power and influence as well. I would define sexual orientation as one person’s personal attraction to a certain sex or gender.

The three most common sexual orientations are heterosexual (straight), homosexual (gay), and bisexual (likes both). There are many reasons that those who are not heterosexual are, and always have been, stigmatize. The most common reason being ignorance.The vast majority of the population is heterosexual and thus ignorant and fearful of any other sexual orientation as they would be considered out of the norm. There have been a lot of jaded studies that have questioned and explored the “cause” of homo/bisexuality. They have all had various results..

. Some believe that the “cause” is biological, some have found that it is genetic, others have concluded that it is a socially learned behavior and other’s think that it is a combination of factors.The main reason that they have been so severely and universally stigmatize is because it is something different that the majority of the population does not fully understand. Especially in Christian nations such as the United States, where people believe that homosexual thoughts and acts are an offense to God in some way. The lesbian, bisexual, gay, transvestite, and questionable community have made great strides as of late.

.. Fighting for civil right/liberties. It reminds me a lot of the civil rights movement of the ass’s and ass’s because, I see it as the exact same situation.

Less than 50 years ago Black people were in the same position, where they were seen as sub-human and interracial relationships, amongst many other civil rights/liberties were seen by the sorority of the population as an absolute abomination. I think that a lot of the people who are currently anti-gay and go out of their way to make it known are going to, eventually, realize that they were being ignorant and hateful and hopefully they will be embarrassed by that and change.That being said, I still think that there is a lot of work to be done before the general stigma is diminished to the point that society as a whole will be that enlightened. In an abstract by Harlan Hahn entitled “Toward a Politics of Disability: Definitions, Disciplines, and Policies,” she states that Increasingly, the subject of physical disability has emerged as a major focus of research in psychology, sociology and economics as well as in several recent anthologies which combine the perspectives of various disciplines.

Yet, disability policy has been virtually ignored by political scientists. ” That is to say that, despite drawing a lot of attention in academic studies, politicians and political scientist have ignored the issue of disabled individuals. This is a prime example of an extremely stigmatize population. Again, because it does not affect the majority of the population… The general public and policymakers do not see it as an issue.

The worst part about this group in particular is that, unlike most other stigmatize groups, they cannot disguise their disabilities nor can they advocate for themselves. There are reasons. For whatever reasons, different people are alienated from society because they are different in some way, misunderstood and rejected. The universal issue with all stigmatize groups is that they are rejected because society as a whole would rather reject anything different than to take the time to understand it.

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