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Carpenter was born on July 25, 2003. Very shortly after he was born, Larsson was diagnosed with asthma, after he had a severely bad case of bronchitis. His cognitive and physical development was much more delayed than other infants that were his age. Larsson began walking, talking, and even sitting up on his own much later than other children his age. As he began to get older, Larsson began to have a distinct physical appearance similar to a child whom had Down syndrome.

On April 4, 2005, my nephew Larsson Carpenter passed away from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Loran’s mother was a heavy cigarette smoker whom smoked over a pack a day of cigarettes during and after her pregnancy. The effects that cigarettes have on a fetus or/and an infant are seriously significant due to the fact that at this time their respiratory system is not functioning at full capacity. Exactly how and when the iatrogenic effects of cigarettes will be discussed along with characteristics and methods of prevention of exposure will be discussed.

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Cigarettes are small, finely cut particles of tobacco rolled in thin papers that people use for smoking. Tobacco is not the only substance present in cigarettes. In fact, there are over 600 ingredients in cigarettes and when burned cigarettes create more than 4,000 hazardous chemicals (Fighting Air). Some of the chemicals are naturally found in the environment, while other are man-made. With all of the hazardous chemicals in cigarettes, either smoking while pregnant or being around someone whom smokes can be very detrimental to a growing fetus.

With the size and composition of nicotine and carbon dioxide, these substances readily cross the placenta (Woolliest). These two compounds account for nearly very smoking related instance that occurs in outer. Nicotine constricts uterine blood vessels causing a decrease in uterine blood flow. This lowers the amount of oxygen and nutrients available to the embryo/fetus from the maternal blood in the interventions space of the placenta (Moore). This would impair cell growth and may also have an adverse effect on mental development.

The carbon monoxide readily crosses the placenta and binds to hemoglobin molecules, decreasing the amount of oxygen that the baby receives (Woolliest). The carbon monoxide depletes the mother’s oxygen as well, which is the source of most of the fetus oxygen in outer Werner). The decrease in oxygen can lead to many complications from GIG to spontaneous abortion. In the womb, the lack of blood flow that the fetus receives causes permanent damage since oxygen is needed for the growth of the fetus. This would be detrimental to the growth and development of the fetus.

Since babies do not fully use their circulation system until after there born, smoking during pregnancy has effects on the fetus through out the entire pregnancy. Since, most vital organs are formed during the first eight weeks of pregnancy, the need for oxygen to the embryo is very important. Smoking during pregnancy would have the cost iatrogenic effect during the first eight week. Not only does a mother directly smoking effect a growing fetus, but also second-hand smoke and a newly found effect that is being referred to as third-hand smoke.

Second hand smoke refers too mother who breathes in someone else’s smoke (Woolliest). A woman whom breathes in the chemicals that are let out by a burning cigarette, the side-stream smoke, is exposed to higher amounts of carbon monoxide then the person that is actually smoking! Second-hand smoke causes 600,000 premature deaths per year (World Health Organization). The concept of third-hand smoke is much more interesting. Even if you are not in the room while a person is smoking, some of the by-products can cling to the walls, ceilings, draperies, and various other product and will withstand cleaning (Lowell).

When a person touches these, than can still be exposed to some of the harmful by-products that affects a person. Exposure to cigarette smoke in any of the above forms can be very detrimental to a fetus and can cause many different abnormalities, one of which is intrauterine growth retardation (AUGUR). II-JAR is one of the most well known documented effects of smoking or being around smoke while a person is pregnant. (Werner). Chronic fetal hypoxia, or low oxygen levels cause GIRL, which affects the fetus growth and development (Moore 418). Another result of chronic fetal hypoxia is lowered birth rates.

Smoking during pregnancy reduces birth weight an average of 200 g, and there is a dose-response effect where birth weight decreases as numbers of cigarettes smoked increases (Werner). Birth weight adjusted for gestational age is the best indicator for II-JAR because of how interrelated gestational age and birth weight are. Small for gestational age, which is commonly referred to as SAG, is any baby that is born with is less than 5th percentile weight of their given gestational age. Smoking increases the SAG risk 2. 5-fold and risk increases with numbers of cigarettes smoked (Werner).

Smoking at all is bad, but the more a woman smokes the more detrimental the results. Heavy smokers are more than likely to deliver their baby prematurely than mothers who do not smoke and generally weigh less (Moore 476). A baby born with a low birth rate is the chief predictor of infant death. Smoking does not Just affect the weight of the fetus, structural malformations can also occur to the fetus as well. Since the formation of most organ systems occur very early in pregnancy, it is very important for woman to cease smoking if they are trying to have a baby.

The most common structural malformation that occurs when mother’s smoke during pregnancy is Central Nervous System defects (Werner). Neural tube defects, such as encyclical, spins biffed, and encephalitic, are some of the most prevalent CANS defects that appear in women whom have smoked while they are pregnant. Oral clefts are another major malformation associated with smoking while people are pregnant. In a recent study, approximately 28% of all oral cleft palate malformations have been linked to smoking. Not only does smoking create problems for the child hill they are in outer, it also poses as problems after.

Maternal smoking while pregnant has been linked to the indescribable occurrence known as Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (KIDS). While many people are unsure what exactly causes KIDS to occur, households in which the mother smoked while pregnant and after, the occurrence of this dilemma is much higher than those households that don’t (Wheeler). The mother of my nephew whom passed away smoked over a pack of cigarettes a day before, during, and after Larsson was born. All though she also drank alcohol, the direct effect of there not being enough oxygen supplied to Larsson hill he was in outer proved to be very devastating.

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