Union of European Football Associations football title is the chief football competition next merely to FIFA World Cup. Henri Delaunay who besides played a important portion for the creative activity of the FIFA World Cup in 1928 wanted to hold a tourney for Europe. Propounded the thought of a European Football Union Cup in 1927 but it was non until 1958, the dream of European Nations Cup materialized ( Koper, 2008 ) .
Five old ages ago, on 30th January 2005, the Polish Football Association and the Football Federation of Ukraine officially applied the Polish and Ukraine campaigning as host of the European Football Championship 2012. On 18th April 2007, Executive Committee of UFEA has decided – Euro 2012 will be held in Poland and Ukraine – Italy and Croatia together with Hungary has been dropped out of the competition.
The communicating web plays a really of import function in the history of each state, it is a “ blood stream ” leting for development. The degree of promotion of transit substructure is one of the most of import standards for measuring the socio-economic development of the state – besides demonstrate the economic growing. Polish conveyance substructure is in hapless status – Polish route web depart from the one in neighboring states – and requires a scope of investings that will better the state of affairs and increase the fight of the economic system ( Ministry of Infrastructure, 2005 ) .
Polish route substructure is non adapted to the criterions known in the European Union. As a member of the EU, Poland has to bear in head that conveyance systems plays a alone function as a system associating the member provinces in one being. The current province of roads in Poland is an of import obstruction to the development of international trade with both EU and non-EU states. Unfortunately, the bing subdivisions of expresswaies and freewaies do non do up a coherent web, associating major metropoliss and industrial countries of the state. Lack of comprehensive system of roads limits the influx of foreign investings. It is a relevant obstruction to mobility of labour force and reduction of unemployment – the effect of such state of affairs is slow betterment in the fight of Polish economic system.
Allowing the organisation of UEFA EURO 2012 to Poland and Ukraine is a really of import inducement that will increase the importance of enlargement and investings into route web in Poland. Organization of mega event requires development and modernisation of the full conveyance substructure, in peculiar roads. The so far actions taken and gait of work undertaken does non vouch success. The analysis of the current state of affairs is needed. Particularly legal and organisational conditions, in order to place the factors suppressing and impending the investings in the route substructure in Poland.
The entire costs associated with the organisation of EURO 2012 are difficult to gauge. By 2012 Poland will pass at least 16 billion PLN ( ?3.6 billion, 1GBP = 4.42PLN ) on building of expressway web. This amount does non include costs that will be generated by redevelopment and building of freewaies. General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways ( GDDKiA ) estimated entire cost of investings related to route web substructure for Football Championship will be 26 billion PLN ( ?5.9 billion, 1GBP = 4.42PLN ) .
Paradoxically, it appears that the biggest job is non money. Until 2013, Poland could put about 260 billion PLN ( ?59 billion ) from the European Union financess. The chief barrier in the readying to organisation of the biggest featuring event in Europe is the Polish jurisprudence, more exactly – the tendering and edifice proceedings. Even simplifying them thanks to the Act of Euro 2012, it does non vouch that Poland will pull off to set into operation all investings that are already planned.
Experts fear that Poland will non manage the building of route conveyance substructure on clip. In 2007, merely 32 kilometers of expresswaies has been put into service and at the minute work is in advancement on merely 110 kilometers. If the current gait will go on, the web needed will be build in 2030. Meanwhile, affairs related to obtaining building licenses, the environmental agreements or the salvation of the land are being dragged on for months.
Purposes and aims
The purpose of this undertaking is to reexamine the state of affairs of the readying of route substructure in Poland for European Football Championship in 2012.
Describe the current province of Polish substructure
To show the necessary investings for EURO 2012
To measure cardinal economic impact of EURO 2012
To measure the province of Polish route substructure
To determine route substructure required for EURO 2012
Impact of organisation of EURO 2012 on substructure development, touristry and economic system of host state
It is estimated that in 2012, Poland will be visited by 21.4 million tourers – 15.7 million in 2006 ( Lopacinski, 2007 ) . Preparation for EURO 2012 will make over 100 thousand new occupation arrangements, acceleration in fixed investings and a larger influx of foreign financess – this is the prognosis of impact of the organisation of European Football Championship on the Polish economic system harmonizing to the Ministry of Economy ( Jacyna, Warszawa 2009 ) .
A readying for EURO 2012 chiefly means increased investing ( bowls, route and communicating substructure, hotels, etc. ) . Harmonizing to prognosiss made by the Ministry of Economy this will:
speed up the growing of gross fixed capital disbursals from 16.7 per cent in 2006 to an norm of around 22-25 per cent during the period of 2008-2012,
speed up the growing in domestic demand from around 6 per cent in 2006 to an mean degree of about 7.5-8 per cent in the old ages 2008-2012, including:
single ingestion growing by 6 per cent in 2008-2012.
The building and touristry industry will achieve the biggest advantages from the organisation of EURO 2012 – contractors and providers will both profit from it. During the mega event, hotel subdivision will derive largely, but besides nutrient makers and retail merchants. Increased grosss are besides expected in advertisement market ( Adamowicz, Gdansk 2010 ) .
Giving Poland the right to form such a big project will besides increase the prestigiousness of the state. This should interpret into greater involvement in Polish market on the portion of foreign capital ( purchasing portions, promote single investors ) . It is estimated that in 2010-2012 the influx of foreign investings will increase by an norm of at least 11.6 billion PLN ( ?2.6 billion ) – compared to the norm for the last three old ages ( Koziarski, Opole 2009 ) .
Poor conveyance substructure is one of the chief barriers to the influx of direct foreign investings. It is expected that the inclusion of Polish metropoliss in the European route web will convey the capital and increase the chances for local industry. In readying for European Football Championship it is planned to build around 900 kilometers of expresswaies ( cost of 25 billion PLN which is the equivalent of ?5.7 billion ) , modernisation of the mail rail links ( 17 billion PLN, ?4 billion ) and eight airdromes. Three new athletics bowls will be build and farther three will be developed to allow criterions ( Jacyna, Warszawa 2009 ) .
Most of the investing undertakings related to the readying for Euro 2012 will be implemented through the Polish Infrastructure and Environment Programme. Overall, the estimated effects of this Program are to lift by 2010 of the GDP by 1 per cent and degree of investings by 7.1 per cent. The organisation of EURO 2012 will significantly increase the usage of EU financess earmarked for the execution of this plan. EURO 2012 will besides convey great benefits for Polish touristry, what is confirmed by the past experiences of other states ( Rucinska and Adamowicz, Gdansk 2009 ) .
( PMR Publications )
In EURO 2012 Poland should be visited by 21.4 million tourers. Growth is estimated at 5.7 million people in between 2007-2012 ( an addition of 34.8 per cent ) .
Foreigners outgos in Poland ( 2012 ) should organize at the degree of approximately 40 billion PLN ( ?9 billion ) , while the addition in the old ages 2007-2012 should be 18 billion PLN ( ?4 billion ) which is 85 per cent more than in 2006 ( Szczepaniak, Lodz 2009 ) .
It would look that it should work for the benefit of Poland ‘s economic system, but it is deserving adverting that the organisation of the titles is a important investing, which stimulates the economic system, but at the same clip there may be jobs with the planned decrease of budget outgo. Among other issues that should be taken into history is the possibility of monetary value addition like it happened in China after the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing where rising prices surged to its highest degree in more than 10 old ages ( Jagtiani, 2008 ) – although this is non a foregoing decision. The betterment on the labor market, greater demand for certain goods and services and increase in wages will decidedly favor ( Adamowicz, Gdansk 2010 ) .
Key issues of conveyance substructure for EURO 2012
Estimated figure of witnesss in the bowls may transcend one million. However, the figure of fans without tickets who will come to the metropoliss hosting lucifers in 2012 may make 3 to 5 times more. Those without tickets will be able to watch lucifers live on large screens in the alleged fan zone ( Tomanek Robert, Katowice 2009 ) .
Reaching the tourney metropoliss must be ensured through equal conveyance substructure. Airports have a high importance, but many fans will utilize the route and rail as their manner of conveyance ( Koziarski, Opole 2009 ) .
Specificity of conveyance planning for EURO 2012 is the appropriate connexion of three elements: land conveyance, air conveyance and hotel substructure. Insufficient hotel base has a direct impact on demand for air travel on the twenty-four hours of the lucifer. However, high adjustment monetary values in metropoliss where lucifers are held average that fans will remain in distant locations, ensuing in cloging the roads. Lack of equal land conveyance efficiency will besides ensue in an extra load on air conveyance. Therefore, the conveyance system must be investigated together ( Jacyna, Warszawa 2009 ) .
An extra component that can non be ignored in going to EURO 2012 is the scope of the Schengen country. Most of the states except Great Britain and Ireland belong to the Schengen Agreement. The job of boundary line control will happen on the boundary line of Poland and Ukraine where at the same clip Schengen country terminals and the boundary line control is obligatory – this will decidedly impact flow on the boundary line to those who will be going by route or rail.
Taking into history the investing processs and the minimal continuance of execution of these investings, within the following twelvemonth it will be possible to find which elements of the planned conveyance web for the EURO will non be built before 2012. Whereas the other constituents of conveyance will be invariably at hazard associated with the possibility of holds in execution ( Szczepaniak, Lodz 2009 ) .
Demand for conveyance substructure which will hold to be faced by the organisers of EURO 2012 is much more hard to foretell. The size and waies of travel, every bit good as the agencies of conveyance depends on many variables that are non yet known. In add-on, some of them will non be known for several yearss before the lucifer, because this depends on which squads will run into in the game. Hence, all estimations and computations must be carried out in many discrepancies and be verified ( Rucinska Danuta, Adamowicz Elzbieta, Gdansk 2009 ) .
The primary challenge of transit associated with EURO 2012 is the range of internal distances between host metropoliss of tourney in Poland and Ukraine. The longest distance between metropoliss keeping the tourney is every bit high as 1900 kilometer. Large distances within the host states and the cardinal European finishs may do much greater demand for air conveyance – the average split will be in favor of air conveyance. In add-on, unequal hotel adjustment is likely to hold a direct impact on demand for air travel in the twenty-four hours of the lucifers, and imposes an extra load on airdromes in the metropoliss of the EURO 2012 tourney ( Tomanek, Katowice 2009 ) .
Based on the experience of old European Football Championship, seven cardinal issues in the field of conveyance were established ( Jacyna, Warszawa 2009 ) and must be resolved:
Availability of conveyance – feature for mega events like European Football Championship on average split of going to each of the metropoliss keeping the tourney.
Distance to be travelled to event and the manner of travel ( air, route and rail ) .
Ticket allotment for EURO 2012 and the handiness of adjustment and conveyance.
Airports capacity – impermanent and medium-term addition in airdromes capacity in the host metropoliss possible to use before 2012, if deficient the eventuality program has to be implemented ( e.g. reserve airdromes ) .
Traffic direction – organisation of traffic motion in the metropoliss of tourney, which would run into the demands of the extra traffic associated with the EURO 2012.
Local traffic direction in bowls country.
Pull offing travel for fans without official tickets ( Tomanek, Katowice 2009 ) .
Understanding and deciding these undertakings is indispensable to the proper readying of conveyance services for EURO 2012.
In the division of average split, ab initio the undermentioned rules have been assumed depending on distance of travel:
below 200 km – route conveyance and rail,
from 200 to 400 kilometers – rail and managers,
from 400 to 800 kilometers – three agencies of conveyance ( air, rail and route ) ,
over 800 kilometers – about entirely air conveyance.
( Tomanek, Katowice 2009 )
An of import factor that influences the conveyance demand and average split is the ticket distribution system, which is applied by UEFA. Large proportion of the ticket goes to international protagonists, whose transit demands are based mostly on air conveyance. Ticket distribution scenarios should be determined in the manner which will let ciphering the national and international transit demand ( Rucinska and Adamowicz, Gdanska 2009 ) .
Plans for the organisation of traffic in the metropoliss of the EURO 2012 tourney will be based on the superposition of 4 separate conveyance systems superimposed on each other:
bed I – current lasting transit system – includes all planned and approved developments, modernisations and buildings of substructure to supply extra carrying capacity by 2012.
bed II – supernumerary services – impermanent, enhanced public conveyance system, chiefly used for local travel, covers extra conveyance services for visitants.
bed III – a impermanent strategy of hired coachs used for long-distance travel – composed of managers concentrated at coach Stationss and extra service for airdromes.
bed IV – impermanent, particular conveyance system for the UEFA Family ( participants, functionaries, referees, patrons etc. ) – its precedence is to guarantee the motion to commissioned vehicles of UEFA Family and other vehicles of EURO 2012.
( Rydzkowski and Wojewodzka-Krol, Warszawa 2010 )
In order to minimise hazards during proper operation, all new and upgraded bowls and conveyance systems, such as tube, ropeway, passageways and belowground prosaic crossing should be tested and checked before the start of EURO 2012. The test should be carried out during major featuring events and are the footing for developing the staff to confirmation of bid and the proper operation of technology, logistics and communicating.
Footing for these actions is to specify the expected traffic, the figure of riders and air operations during EURO 2012. Harmonizing to UEFA premises, 66 per cent of fans will desire to acquire to the topographic point within 24 hours before the game begins, out of which 50 per cent will utilize air conveyance.
In order to successfully form the football title, it is necessary to supply efficient route and rail connexions between:
host towns in Poland,
host towns in Poland and Ukraine,
host towns in Poland and neighbouring states.
The existent challenge is a broad scope of planned development of expresswaies and freewaies web by 2012 in conformity with the “ National Road Construction Programme 2008-2012 ” . This plan plans the building of 906 kilometers of expresswaies and 2,101 kilometer of freewaies by June 2012. Nearby 12-18 months will demo what per centum of this plan will be realized on clip ( Tomanek, Katowice 2009 ) .
Internal conveyance substructure in the host metropoliss ( with the exclusion of the national roads and rail substructure ) is the duty of local authoritiess. Harmonizing to UEFA experts, each of the host metropoliss of the titles should be wholly prepared, irrespective of the position of execution of a complete list of undertakings. An of import component of urban motion will be appropriate traffic direction, without which modernized and expanded conveyance substructure may non be really utile and efficient.
Traffic direction in the host metropoliss requires a sufficiently early ( with up to several old ages in progress ) operational planning, which binds the tournament organiser with the relevant governments responsible for conveyance, route haulers and the constabulary. Integration of all manners of conveyance, security, communications systems in a individual bid and direction Centre is a requirement for the well-organized and safe titles. The traffic direction will be an indispensable component that will guarantee a smooth and safe travel to the host metropoliss and therefore easy and safe entree to the bowls. Necessary aid in the metropoliss will be a monitoring system, the enlargement program should take into history the points of exposure in footings of conveyance service for Euro 2012 ( Rydzkowski and Wojewodzka-Krol, Warszawa 2010 ) .
The province of Polish route substructure at March 2010
( GDDKiA – General Directorate of National Roads and Motorways )
Roads completed and in operation ( since allowing organisation of EURO 2012 to Poland and Ukraine )
Since 18th April 2007, 908 kilometers of expresswaies, freewaies, beltwaies and reconstructed roads has been put into service.
Table 1: Expresswaies ( 180.6 kilometer )
Distance ( kilometer )
Rusocin – Swarozyn
Swarozyn – Nowe Marzy
Sosnica – Belk
Sosnica junction at intersection of A1 and A4 expresswaies
Strykow I – Strykow II junction, with the nexus to DK14
Zgorzelec – Wykroty
Wykroty – Krzyzowa
Krakow – Szarow
Table 2: Expresswaies ( 287 kilometer )
Distance ( kilometer )
Bielsko Biala – Cieszyn
Pryrzowice – Podwarpie II
Nowa Sol beltway
Gorzow Wielkopolski beltway
Bydgoszcz – Stryszek – Biale Blota
Grojec – Bialobrzegi – Jedlinsk
Wystepa – Kielce
Myslenice – Lubien ( Lubien beltway )
Radzymin – Wyszkow
Poznan – Kornik
Elblag – Grzechotki
Szare – Laliki – Zwardon
Road substructure under building
At present, there are around 837 kilometers of roads under building and redevelopment:
363 kilometer of expresswaies,
291 kilometer of freewaies,
109 kilometer of beltwaies and
74 kilometer of roads are traveling to be reconstructed.
Table 3: Expresswaies ( 363 kilometer )
Distance ( kilometer )
Nowe Marzy – Torun
Pyrzowice – Piekary – Maciejow – Sosnica
Belk – Swierklany – Gorzyczki
Nowy Tomysl – Swiecko
Minsk Mazowiecki beltway
Szarow – Brzesko – Wierzchoslawice – Krzyz
Central Rzeszow – Rzeszow East
Wroclaw beltway, Lotnisko and Pawlowice junction
Table 4: Expresswaies ( 290 kilometer )
Distance ( kilometer )
Komorowice – Rosta
Pulawsko – Lotnisko – Marynarska
Szczecin – Pyrzyce – Mysliborz – Gorzow Wielkopolski
Gniezno – Czachurki – Kleszczowo
Gdansk – Koszwaly – Elblag
Kalsk – Milomlyn
Skarzysko – Kamienna – Wystepa
Biezanow – Chirsto Botewa
Poznan Western beltway
Stobierna – Rzeszow
Bielsko Biala – Zywiec
Kielce – Cedzyna
Contracted route substructure ( since allowing organisation of EURO 2012 to Poland and Ukraine )
From April 2007 onwards, Poland has contracted for 1215 kilometers of expresswaies, freewaies and beltwaies.
Table 5: Expresswaies ( 485 kilometer )
Distance ( kilometer )
Belk – Swierklany
Sosnica, linking A1 with A4 expressway
Pyrzowice – Piekary Slaskie – Maciejow
Strykow – Konotopa
Minsk Mazowiecki beltway
Jaroslaw – Radymno – Korczowa
Euro 2012 Stadiums and the indispensable route substructure
At 11th December 2009 UEFA has made the concluding determination sing the host metropoliss of European Football Championship 2012. The tourney lucifers will be played in four Polish and four Ukrainian metropoliss. EURO 2012 lucifers will be played in the undermentioned metropoliss:
The gap game will take topographic point in Warsaw, while the finals will be held on the East in Kiev.
Host metropoliss of EURO 2012
By 2012 in both states – Poland and Ukraine – must develope eight football spheres. In Poland new bowls will be built in Warsaw, Gdansk and Wroclaw. While, the bowl in Poznan will be adjusted to the UEFA demands. Lodz and Bialystok is besides be aftering to construct new bowls, every bit good as smaller metropoliss – such as Pulawy – where national squads will be accommodated. The objects in Chorzow and Krakow were listed as modesty ( Ministry of Sport and Tourism of the Republic of Poland ) .
In the Ukraine, the new Shakhtar bowl in Donieck was completed in mid 2009. New installations will besides be raised in Kiev and Lviv, which will be the largest bowl of the title in 2012. Ukrainians are besides be aftering to overhaul the bowl in Kharkiv. Stadiums in Odessa and Dnipropetrovsk were listed as modesty ( Ministry of Sport and Tourism of the Republic of Poland ) .
European quality of roads – one of the precedences sing route substructure, which is of peculiar importance in the context of readying for EURO 2012. Comfort and safety of roads will impact non merely the velocity of travel between the host metropoliss but will besides act upon the overall feeling of foreign tourers. In readying of route substructure for EURO 2012, GDDKiA has compiled a list of precedence roads, the undertaking will be to run into the European criterions of traveling by route.
5.1 Sport installations in Poland – traffic generators
Warsaw – National Stadium
Capital bowl will be the portion of a larger complex called National Sport Centre. The bowl will hold a capacity of 53 224 viewing audiences and will keep the opening lucifer of EURO 2012. Its building has begun in 2009 and is planned for completion in the 3rd one-fourth of 2011. The composite will besides offer a modern train station linked with the tube line in the capital of Poland.
Gdansk – Municipal Arena
Works has started in March 2008 but the building non earlier 4th one-fourth of 2008. The dead line of seting the installation into service is non compromised and is planned for terminal of 2010. On the Baltic Arena the group phase and one-fourth finals will be held during title. The edifice will suit 40 818 witnesss.
Wroclaw – Municipal Stadium
The undertaking is being implemented on the 21 acre brown field site. The bowl in Wroclaw will besides hold a auto park for three thousand autos, hotel and eating houses. Its building has begun in 2008 and will take about two old ages. The new installation will hold a capacity of 40 610.
Poznan – Municipal Stadium
With the proclamation of the UEFA Executive Committee to allow the right of organisation EURO 2012 by Poland and Ukraine the bowl in Poznan was already in an advanced phase of modernisation. By 2012 there will be parking installation and a preparation land. The bowl in Poznan will keep 42 004 witnesss.
5.2 Priority roads for EURO 2012
European Football Championships is an chance for the building and modernisation of freewaies and main roads. After allowing EURO 2012 to Poland and Ukraine the authorities has announced that will rush up the execution of investings related to route substructure by two old ages, traveling the deadline of completion from 2014 to 2012.
Priority expresswaies and freewaies for EURO 2012
Precedences are routes linking the host metropoliss and these running from Western to Eastern boundary of Poland. The indispensable investings that will supply connexions at required criterions are:
A4 with A18
Path: Gdansk – Gorzyczki ( Polish – Czech boundary line )
Length: 135 kilometer
Target length: 568 kilometer
Completion day of the month: 2012
A1 runs along the international E75 route web, which is in the VI Trans-European Corridor. The path will link the Tri-city ( Gdansk, Gdynia, Sopot ) with the metropolitan countries of Torun, Lodz and Upper Silesia. It crosses the A2 expressway in North Lodz ( Strykow I junction ) and A4 in Gliwice ( Sosnica junction ) . A1 ends at the boundary line crossing in Gorzyczki and connects with the route taking to Brno ( Czech ) .
Path: Swiecko – Warsaw – Kukuryki
Length: 254 kilometer
Target length: 610 kilometer
Completion day of the month: 2012
A2 runs attitudinally through cardinal countries of Poland. It is a portion of the international route E30, lying in the 2nd Trans-European Corridor. Continuing the path of German A12 expressway from Berlin, on Polish district will run from the boundary line crossing in Swiecko, through Poznan, Lodz ( traversing A1 expressway ) , Warsaw and Siedlce to the Polish – Belarussian boundary line in Kukuryki.
A4 and A18 expressway
Path: Jedrzychowice – Korczowa
Length: 445 kilometer
Target length: 670 kilometer ( 78km of A18 )
A4 expressway is a portion of the international E40 path and is in the 3rd Trans-European Transport passageway. Its complement will be the A18 motorway – Trans-European Corridor IIIa. A4 will go on the tally of German expressway from the way of Dresden, than will run from Jedrzychowice through Wroclaw, Katowice, Krakow and Rzeszow up to the boundary line traversing with Ukraine in Korczowa. In the country of Boleslawiec, A4 will link to the A18 taking from the Olszyna – boundary line with Germany. A18 is an extension of the German A15 expressway which runs from Berlin.
Path: Gdansk – Warsaw – Kielce – Krakow – Rabka
Length: 139 kilometer
Target length: 720 kilometer
The planned path S7 GdaA„sk – Rabka lies within the European path E28 ( on the subdivision from Tri-City to Elblag ) and E77 ( from Elblag to the South ) . It will link metropolitan countries of Gdansk, Warsaw and Krakow every bit good as the boundary line with Slovakia in Chyzne.
Path: Wroclaw – Lodz – Warsaw – Bialystok – Budzisko
Length: 52 kilometer
Target length: 680 kilometer
S8 expressway will link Wroclaw with the Polish – Lithuania boundary line traversing in Budzisko and will be the portion of European path E67.
Path: Warsaw – Lublin – Hrebenne
Length: 19 kilometer
Target length: 310 kilometer
The planned freeway Warsaw – Hrebenne ( the boundary line with Ukraine ) is located within the European path E372. It will link the Warsaw agglomeration with Lublin state and will take further in the way of Lvov.
Path: Piotrkow Trybunalski – Dorohusk
Length: 17 kilometer
Target length: 315 kilometer
The planned S12 expressway will link Piotrkow Trybunalski with the Polish – Ukrainian boundary line crossing in Dorohusk. It will be portion of the international path E373 running in the way of Kiev. In add-on, by associating with the S17 it will be a communicational axis of Lublin.
Path: Grudziadz – Poznan – Breslau
Length: 40 kilometer
Target length: 400 kilometer
S5 expressway via A1 motorway will link Tri-city with Bydgoszcz, Poznan and Wroclaw. It will significantly better transit between the three agglomerations which will keep the EURO 2012 lucifers. Locally will do up the Poznan Eastern beltway and will besides be a portion of the international route E261.
Construction of the A4 expressway: Zgorzelec – Krzyzowa
The investing was financed with financess from the European Union and the financess at the disposal of the General Directorate for National Roads and Motorways.
The undertaking covered the building of the A4 expressway on the subdivision Zgorzelec ( Polish – German boundary line ) – Krzyzowa ( point of connexion with the A18 expressway ) with the length of 51.4 kilometers. This subdivision of expressway is situated in the South – Western Poland and is portion of the longest – about 8 thousand kilometers – Trans European Transport Corridor III which begins in Calais, France and runs through Brussels, Cologne, Dresden, Wroclaw, Katowice, Korczowa, Lviv and Kiev to Kazahstan.
The undertaking consisted of two separate parts:
Construction of a subdivision from the boundary line to the Wykroty town ( 22 kilometer )
Construction of a subdivision from the Wykroty to Krzyzowa ( 29.4 kilometer )
Zgorzelec – Krzyzowa subdivision
Undertaking cost: 1 229 000 000 PLN ( ?278 000 000 )
Eligible cost: 1 190 000 000 PLN ( ?269 000 000 )
EU Cohesion Fund: 82 % of eligible costs ( 975 000 000 PLN, ?220 769 230 )
Execution clip: April 2007 – August 2009 ( 28 months )
Scope of plants:
Section A: Zgorzelez – Wykroty
support of an bing surface of A4 expressway from the boundary line to Zgorzelec ( 1.7 kilometer )
building of a new 20.3 kilometers long motorway
Reconstruction of an bing Zgorzelec junction
building of Godziszow junction
building of 8 Bridgess over the expressway for traffic and animate beings, drainage, entree roads, building of two expressway service countries, environmental protection equipment such as noise barriers, H2O armored combat vehicles, oil centrifuges, etc. the building of expressway lighting and communicating system
system of traffic direction
motorway taging and execution of route safety devices
Section B: Wykroty – Krzyzowa
building of new expressway, 29.4 kilometers long
building of expressway junctions – Boleslawiec and Krzyzowa
building of 12 flyovers over motorway, 6 transitions for animate beings and an extra two due to environmental determinations
building of 15 Bridgess, drainage, entree roads, 3 expressway service countries, environmental protection equipment such as acoustic screens, H2O armored combat vehicles, oil centrifuges, etc. expressway lighting and communicating system
system of traffic direction
motorway taging and execution of route safety devices
9th November 2006 Signing a contract for the building of A4 expressway
10th April 2007 Contractor reported preparedness to get down plants
14th August 2009 The 51.4 kilometers long subdivision of A4 motorway Zgorzelec – Krzyzowa has been opened for public usage
UEFA European Football Championship is an event that promotes organisers and besides contributes to beef uping the image of the state. Allowing the right of keeping EURO 2012 to Poland and Ukraine is a great chance for the parts and even the whole state.
Poland is a state with a really low degree of development of route substructure. While there is no obstructions in raising financess for building of route substructure ( Poland may trust on grants from European Union ) the chief barrier is the Polish statute law procedure. The jurisprudence and ordinances efficaciously inhibits the procedure of investings and building in substructure. Meanwhile, the procedure of altering the jurisprudence is delayed.
At present – April, 2010 – by taking into history the procedure of constructing one of the A4 expressway subdivision, it can be concluded that there is a existent menace to the execution of the planned buildings of route substructure associated with the organisation of EURO 2012.
The requirement for the successful development of route substructure is preparation of an moving programme, which will non be merely another papers depicting the lacks and shortcoming but will be a existent tool for bettering the current province of Poland ‘s route substructure.