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Its back completely as true loppers. They are found In wetland environment. Feed on leaf blade. The young larva scrapes leaf tissue from the leave blade. Use an optional amount of fertilizer Tragicomic wasp – parasites their eggs Ichneumon wasp – parasites the larva Larva are attacked by fungi Spider- feed on adult Folia sprays or systemic granules. Hydraulic Philippine Offering Where maggot The rice whorl maggot is semi-aquatic. It is common in irrigated fields and feeds on the central whorl leaf of the vegetative stage of the rice plant. It does not occur in upland rice .

It also prefers nods, streams and lakes or places with abundant calm water and lush vegetation. Damage Eat the tissue of open leaves Older larva feeds on developing leaves at the base of plants in the zone of developing tillers Damage leaves with white or transparent patches near the edges after they unfold. Light damaged leaves with pin hole & severely damaged leaves break from the wind Maturation may be delayed for 7-10 days Drain the payday at 3-4 days interval during the first 30 days after transplanting Direct seeding Treat seedling before transplanting. Broadcast granules during last harrowing fore transplanting.

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Foliage sprays 1-2 weeks after transplanting Rice Hasp The rice hasp is common in rained and irrigated wetland environments and is more abundant during the rainy season Adult and larva feed on leaves scrap the upper leaf suffice tissue and leave white streaks of uneaten lower epidermis between the parallel leave vain Larva mines are irregular semi transparent patches that run parallel to leave blade If severe leaf dries and turns brown so damage field has a burn appearance withering of damaged leaves Close spacing for greater leaf densities, removing grassy leaf. Rely panting picking damage Bracing parasites the larvae Spray and dust Army worm Hand Become highly abundant & move in a large group like an army from field to field. Cut off seedlings at ground level Occur in all rice environments but are less prevalent in irrigated wetland rice The larva feed on leave blades by removing large areas either from leaf tips or along the margin. Outbreaks occur after a prolonged drought followed by a heavy rains.

Establish seedbeds in sites far from large area of weeds Plow fallow land Ants & wasps prey on egg & larvae Spider prey on moth Scoliosis & tragicomic wasp parasite the eggs Bracing, lollopped Comparisons medicinal Rice leaf folder To form a protective feeding chamber larva folds a leave blade together by attaching to the leaf margin silk strands that shrink upon drying They feed inside the folded leaf creating longitudinal white and transparent streaks on the blade. Onus larvae feeding on the base of the youngest unopened leaves, management Use resistant varieties. Contact your local agriculture office for an up-to-date list of available varieties. Follow rice with a different crop, or fallow period. Avoid radiation. Flood and plow field after harvesting if possible. Remove grassy weeds from fields and borders. Reduce density of planting. Use balanced fertilizer rates. Palisade Matthias Fabrics, Prank Augusta Bremen and Grey Rice skipper Rice skippers are found in all rice environments.

They are most abundant in rained rice fields. The adults are diurnal. At nighttime, they rest. They have very fast and erratic flight movement as they skip from plant to plant. The larvae are nocturnal. They feed on the leaf blades at night and rest during daytime. They also create a leaf chamber where they rest during the day. Rice skipper feeding damage causes removal of leaf tissues. They roll leaves and make a protected chamber. The insect favors young transplanted rice seedlings.

Feeding damage continues until plant maturation Parasites and predators usually control the population density of rice skippers in the field. The eggs of rice skippers are parasite by small wasps. Big wasps earwigs. The orb-web spiders feed on the adults during flight. Green horn caterpillar The adults are not attracted to a light trap. The larvae because of their color blend easily with the rice foliage. Pupation occurs on the leaves and the pupa is a chrysalis suspended from leaves Larvae of green horned caterpillars feed on leaf margins and leaf blades. The feeding damage causes removal of leaf tissues and veins Life cycle Egg – pear-like, laid singly or in rows on leafs and difficult to see Larva – yellow- agreement blends into rice foliage; Damageable covered with small, yellow, bead- lickerish,flat and square heads Pupa – chrysalis containing the pupa is green & smooth & splendid from the leaf Taut – -Large larva feeds on margin & tips of blades & removes leafs tissue & vain Biological he eggs are parasite by thermodynamic wasps.

Chalice wasp and two species of attaching flies parasite the larvae wasp preys on the larvae. Insecticides White Stem borer vested Newly hatched larvae bore inside the young rice plant, traveling downward between the leaf sheaths and causing death of the young tip (dead hearts) in the vegetative stage, and empty panicle (white heads) in the generative stage. First- instars larvae may use silken threads to move to other plants. White stereo is an important pest in rained wetland rice. It can cause outbreaks and destroy rice fields

Tiny holes on the stems and tillers flooding prior to wet-season planting also reduces infestation as diapers is ended out of synchronization with the availability of the host crop. Before transplanting, cut the leaf-top to reduce carry-over of eggs from the seedbed to the field Mechanical Infestation may be reduced by cutting the stubble very low during harvest, destroying larvae before they move to the lower part for diapers Biological Control Egg paranoids are more important than larva or papal paranoids, egg parasitism may reach up to 90% at harvest

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