Psychosocial Critical Evaluation: Case Study of Rory
Psychosocial theory originates from psychoanalytic and psychodynamic casework, which has had a profound and permanent impact on societal work ( Kenny and Kenny, 2000 ) . This assignment will utilize the instance survey of Rory, a 15 twelvemonth old male child life in a household place with his brother, female parent and stepmother. Throughout the assignment Rory’s societal environment and his relationships within this environment will be analysed in order to understand how these factors have shaped his development. Following on from this an rating of group work as an intercession method to back up and authorise Rory shall be explored. Group work will be taken as grounds for pattern, where societal work pattern is carried out in groups ( Doel, 2000, p.148 ) . Psychosocial theories will be explored into how they influence group work and group kineticss, and the manner group work can be used to alter and set dysfunctional societal environments. In making so, the theoretical account of psychosocial theory and its relevancy to societal work will be explored, and how utile it is in understanding clients and advancing their best involvements.
In order to review the theoretical account of psychosocial theory, and research how it influences our perceptual experience of the human status, we must hold a clear thought of what we mean by the term. Modern societal work theoreticians have stressed the importance of using the right competence to the single individual, with respect to their societal environment ( Hutchinson, 2008 ) . It sees people as ‘products of the interaction among their biogenetic gift, the effects of important relationships, the impact of life experiences, and their engagement in social, cultural and current events’ ( Turner, 1978, p.2 ) . The societal work profession, can see the single individual as interdependent with their environment, which they are able to act upon and alter ( Kondrat, 2002 ) . By seeing persons as being unambiguously shaped by their environment, it helps societal workers avoid the issues of societal individuality theory. Rather than categorizing or pigeonholing people, societal workers are able to sympathize and see all service users as persons ( Tajfel and Turner, 1979, cited in Gaine, 2010 ) . The chief thoughts of psychosocial theory are reflected in other societal work theories and methods, such as systems and attachment theory. Both theories developed from the demand to construct upon the traditional psychoanalytic theoretical account of single therapy ( Walker, 2012 ) , and the thought that single experiences with households were continually being shaped and influenced by the germinating interaction forms of communicating.
For group work to be good there must be a heedfulness of the societal context or sociology of the person and group. Understanding persons who compromise the group requires cognition of ‘psychosocial operation and development through the life cycle’ but besides the impact of the group’s construction and procedure on the members’ behavior. A group can non be understood without cognition of members in their single societal context ( Northern and Kurland, 2001, p.35 ) . This promotes and encourages diverseness within the group, as practicians are aware of differences within the group, and how they can be addressed to advance societal accomplishments such as empathy and regard. If a client’s environment and societal context has been dysfunctional, as in Rory’s instance, the group work can supply a theoretical account of a healthy civilization through the group values, communicating forms, and the manner it addresses interpersonal struggle ( Northern and Kurland, 2001 ) .
Having explored the connexion between group work and psychosocial theory, two theories of societal work shall be applied and explored following. Attachment theory focuses on the quality of the fond regards in the important relationships in a client’s yesteryear ( Bowlby, 1979, 1988 ) . Bowlby’s theory of fond regard stresses the importance of past relationships by finding which will develop emotionally and socially, and organize relationships in the hereafter. Bowlby was peculiarly concerned with the interactions and fond regards that persons had with their parents or carers. The ability of a kid to attach to a parent or carer, the degree of consistence of the parent or carer to run into the emotional demands of a kid and the ability of the kid to experience safe and secure, predicted how the kid would develop emotionally. This theory has peculiar relevancy and importance for this instance survey. The relationship between Rory and his female parent can be recognised as a disorganized fond regard. His mother’s bi-polar upset means her behavior is inconsistent at times, due to her holding stable periods but when her temper is really black she neglects the demands of Rory and his brother. From this behaviour Rory receives assorted messages, go forthing him experiencing dying and unable to explicate and perchance understand his ain feelings ( Bowlby, 1988 ) . His male parent appears to expose as insecure or ambivalent fond regard, this is due to him showing an incompatibility in his attitude to Rory, pretermiting contact for several hebdomads at a clip. His unpredictable behavior and failure to expose attending in a consistent manner leads to anxiousness and hurt for Rory.
Attachment theory is helpful to societal workers in be aftering intercession, as they have insight into how past experiences of the service user can impact on their behavior, and their ability to organize relationships. For illustration, at the Youth Club Rory is seen as progressively withdrawn and fickle by the young person workers. This may be due to his disorganized fond regards impacting upon his ability to act in societal state of affairss. Preston-Shoot and Agass ( 1990 ) explains that the development and quality of relationships can be influenced by sing the impact of the client’s feelings on behaviors.
Group work can be a powerful tool when based on attachment theory issues. Egeland and Erikson ( 1993 ) and Eriskon et al. , ( 1992 ) described a group in which immature, bad female parents were brought together for hebdomadal group Sessionss from the clip their kids were born until they were one twelvemonth old. Group work was effectual here for two grounds. First, through the curative relationship itself, or the relationship with the group facilitator, in which ‘the facilitator maintains a healthy, supportive confederation with the parent, turn outing such relationships are possible’ ( Erikson et al. , 1992, p.501 ) . When utilizing any intercession, it is of import to make a on the job confederation, in which the patient has assurance that the practician can assist ( Holmes, 2001 ) . Due to Rory holding all his immediate grownup relationships in his life being inconsistent and doing him anxiousness, holding another which proves to be consistent in his life, one that is reliable, may better his self-esteem and address jobs he is exhibiting in societal state of affairss, such as at the Youth Club. The ground he may be go toing the Youth Club could be due to him seeking for that consistence and reliable individual he needs, as the Youth Club is a hebdomadal activity which is ever at that place. The ‘therapeutic’ relationship gives Rory a ‘secure base’ ( Holmes, 2001, p.17 ) where the undertaking can dispute premises and relationship forms.
Group work would besides present Rory to a overplus of positions and persons. Through this, Rory may go witting of ideas and attitudes that were antecedently unconscious ( Holmes, 2001 ) . In listening to and working with others Rory may construct up his self-esteem. As he begins to organize relationships with members of the group, he has theoretical accounts of healthy and functional relationships that are different from his ain fond regards with household members. This could increase his assurance, turn toing jobs of withdrawn and fickle behavior that have been raised by Youth Workers at Youth Club. A figure of surveies have shown group work can better societal accomplishments ( Reid and Hammond, 2001 ; Fargan and Jones, 2002 ) . Group work besides promotes diverseness as those it helps make non experience stray or alienated by their jobs: through sharing experiences in a respectful and tolerant environment they gain insight into the agonies and challenges of others, and methods to get the better of this. Groupwork as a signifier of larning extends beyond this, as groups offer members feedback that is frequently more effectual coming from equals than from a societal worker ( Northern and Kurland, 2001 ) . When done sensitively and constructively, such feedback helps clients such as Rory with their societal accomplishments and their ability to construct relationships outside of the group.
A failing of this theory, nevertheless, may that does it is non sufficiently embracing of all the societal forces that act on the person. Psychosocial theory holds that we should admit the function in human development of disposition, racism, poorness, societal category, and other environmental conditions ( unfavorable judgment outlined in Coady and Lehman, 2007 ) . Group kineticss and interactions can non be understood through individual’s relationships with their parents entirely. Psychosocial theory aids societal workers in understanding and analyzing the state of affairss and behaviors of their client. This provides practicians with penetration into what has occurred in the yesteryear or what may happen in the hereafter. However, some argue that attachment theory does non paint a image of the client whole: by imputing all of Rory’s behaviors and concerns to his parents, the practician may pretermit the wider societal context that is moving on him.
Systems theory may offer a more across-the-board image of Rory’s societal context. This theory holds that persons and their environments are separate systems that are interconnected and mutualist ( Teater, 2010 ) . By believing of households as life systems, systems theories are able to believe about how kineticss are invariably changing as each household member trades with life inside and outside the household. Rory’s withdrawn behavior, and suicidal ideas can be attributed to the frequence with which his household kineticss alteration. This alteration is at times dramatic – for illustration the dislocation of his parent’s relationship, or his sister go forthing the household home- but besides in the incompatibilities due to his stepfather’s pique and mother’s mental unwellness. Systems theory besides promotes tolerance and diverseness, as it recognises that there is no 1 theoretical account for a healthy, working household ( Walker, 2012 ) .
A alteration or motion in one of these systems consequences in alteration or motion in the others. In Rory’s instance, societal systems theory is utile as it allows societal workers to place which system requires an intercession ( Teater, 2010 ) . The cardinal inquiry is ‘does this construction work for this family’ and does it let for the healthy development and growing of household members? As such, the Munro Report confirms that a systems perspective offers the most holistic tool for set abouting informed appraisal work that takes into full history the broad environmental factors combined with the inter-personal relationship forms that influence household experiences ( cited in Walker, 2012 ) . Furthermore, a family’s construction and administration allows societal workers to find, to some extent what is possible within a peculiar household. Thinking of households consistently besides ensures no household member is marginalised ( Walker, 2012 ) . One-to-one intercession with Rory will hold an impact on the whole household system ; his female parent, brother and stepfather will be affected, and besides the household dynamic as a whole.
As such, group work is an effectual method of intercession harmonizing to societal systems theory. This is because it avoids the hazard that the family’s jobs and their solutions are individualised. By puting Rory in a different group moral force, one that has been constructed by a facilitator or practician, societal workers may be able to measure which elements of the family’s construction need intervention, and where Rory and the household need excess support. By measuring Rory’s forms of communicating and interaction outside his household moral force, practicians may derive greater penetration into his specific demands and methods that can be used to back up and authorise him.
Groupwork for households links closely to the household therapy motion ( pioneered by figures such as Murray Bowen, Jay Haley, and Virginia Satir ) . The household therapy motion advocates systemic characteristics as a agency by which to measure the manner groups of relations organise themselves over clip, making stable forms, that are inclined to return to familiar provinces. As such, one of the beliefs is that systems tend to be self-correcting, based on positive or negative feedback ( Coady and Lehmen, 2007 ) . By utilizing groupwork intercession with Rory, he may experience sceptered and supported to turn to and rectify the forms and familiar provinces of his household, instead than merely taking himself from state of affairss. Furthermore, the counselor or practician can turn to the dysfunctional and destructive subsystems that exist within Rory’s household.
A concern environing this theory of societal work, nevertheless, is the accent societal systems theory topographic points on version. The intent of the group work intercession is to research how systems can be adjusted and alter to make a healthy and supportive construction. As such, some fear that practicians are promoting clients to suit to oppressive fortunes ( Coady and Lehmen, 2007 ) . From this position, Rory may be being taught to accept and accommodate to the hostile and endangering behavior of his stepfather, or the disregard he sometimes faces from his female parent. This can be addressed by being aware of societal work’s traditional concern with societal justice- an integrating of values such as societal justness and societal systems based thought is possible. To make this, practicians must be self-reflective and oppugn their ain values and premises, peculiarly in footings of bias and diverseness, in order to guarantee that the client’s best involvements are at the bosom of group work intercession.
An consciousness of societal circumstance is besides of import in undertaking diverseness with respect to mental wellness. Parental mental wellness, and the break to rearing capacity has been found to hold profound and relentless deductions for kids and their parents ( Smith, 2004 ) . As such, it has been advocated that societal workers have improved entree to preparation that assists with psychosocial intercessions, such as group work ( National Institute for Mental Health in England, 2005 ) . This helps us to understand the quality of fond regard between Rory and his female parent. Rory himself is exposing behaviors that may indicate to mental wellness, peculiarly unwraping self-destructive ideas. Research shows that societal work plays a important function of societal work in advancing the engagement of people utilizing services and developing systemic attacks to pattern with households ( Gilbert, 2007 ) . Diversity is of import here- societal workers must turn to social stigmas sing mental wellness. Effective intercession can besides advance diverseness by assisting those with mental wellness to map and go involved in society.
A psychosocial attack helps us to understand Rory’s forms of communicating and behavior, as it gives us insight into the formative relationships, experiences and environments that have categorised his life therefore far. This puts distressing behaviors, such as suicidal and self-destructive ideas, within a societal context that can be used as the footing for appraisal and intercession. Our chosen intercession method, group work, is besides uncovering about how Rory can be supported and empowered. By patterning healthy and unafraid relationships, and developing Rory’s societal accomplishments, Rory’s future relationships do non hold to be influenced entirely by dysfunctional fond regards with his parents and stepfather. By understanding his household as a system, and detecting Rory but within that system and in other groups, penetration is gained into how Rory’s societal context can be adapted in order to advance the healthy growing of all its members.