Proximate composing of fresh shark flesh consists of 78.
96 % wet, 19.39 % protein, 0.66 % fat, 0.
56 ash and 0.43 % saccharide. Harmonizing to their chemical composing sharks can be seen as high in protein and low in fat. The low fat content makes it suited to be processed. The dendeng in this survey was higher in wet and fat content than those reported by Nasran ( 1993 ) . Nasran ( 1993 ) reported that the wet and fat content of shark fish which were dried utilizing Sun drying were 23.8 % and 0.
87 % , severally. The fluctuations of the fat content of shark dendeng are besides affected by the production seasons. Buckle et Al. ( 1988 ) reported that the proximate content of fish dendeng were 32.
4-35.4 % wet, 3.0-3.8 % fat, 33.4-36.9 % protein, 3.
0-3.8 % ash. Moradi ( 2009 ) reported the fat content of pre-fried breaded filets was 8.80 % and 8.
84 % at 57.70 % and 57.33 % wet content for samples pre-fried in sunflower oil and thenar olein, severally. The lipid oxidization and protein denaturation resulted in a lessening in alimentary value. As the sum of lipoid increased the sum of H2O falls in about additive proportion ( Aitken and Connell, 1979 ) .
There was no important difference ( p & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) noted in minerals except for Na. The samples were likely non homogenous due to the uneven soaking up of minerals and spices ; the minerals and spices settled at the underside of the container ; therefore samples at the underside might absorb more minerals and spices, and since Na was present in a comparatively high sum, the location of the samples significantly affect the Na content. Minerals have been reported to demo important fluctuations among fish species ( Lal, 1995 ) . The Na content of shark dendeng runing from 2257.72 to 2265.55 milligrams 100g-1. This value is higher than “ emu jerked meat ” reported by Pegg et Al.
( 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Gokoglu et Al. ( 2004 ) , the Na content of cooked rainbow trout ranged from 335.54-607 mg/kg.
Several surveies have indicated that the concentration of hint minerals in fish is influenced by a figure of factors such as seasonal and biological differences ( species, size, dark/white musculus, age, sex and sexual adulthood ) , nutrient beginning and environment ( whater chemical science, salt, temperature and contaminations ) ( Badsha and Sainsbury, 1978 ; Farmer et al. , 1970 ; Lal, 1995 ) .Mineral constituents such as Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, P and I are of import for human nutrition ( Erkan and Ozkan, 2007 ) . The chief maps of indispensable minerals include skeletal construction, care of colloidal system and ordinance of acid-base equilibrium. Minerals besides constitute of import constituents of endocrines, enzymes and enzyme activator ( Belitz and Grosch, 2001 ) .
The temperature of Sun drying was around 27-29 & A ; Acirc ; & A ; deg ; C at the clip of drying dendeng, and this makes the colour of dendeng lighter than oven drying ( 60 & A ; Acirc ; & A ; deg ; C ) and vacuum drying ( 60 & A ; Acirc ; & A ; deg ; C ) .
The colour of healed meat merchandises is highly critical constituent chiefly because of its influence on consumer penchant ( Moretti et al. , 2009 ) . Oven dried nutrients normally are darker, more brickle and less flavourful than nutrients dried by a dehydrator. The differences in the accrued H2O loss and consumption of NaCl in both disconnected fish and filets could likely be explained by the unrestrained asperity contractions happening during salting. Such contractions may hold reduced the light transparence through extremely overlapped actin and myosin fibrils ( Lauritzsen et al. , 2004 ) . Harmonizing to Konieczny et Al. ( 2007 ) , the scope of L* , a* and b* value of beef jerked meat at assorted drying clip is 30.
66-33.44, 7.82-13.42, and 4.10-4.76 severally. Brennan ( 2006 ) concluded that when the nutrient pieces are rehydrated, their colour and texture may be significantly inferior to those of the fresh stuff.
It is hard to mensurate the colour of heterogenous merchandises ( Louka et al. , 2004 ) . The colour attributes of dendeng were influenced by brown sugars, Tamarindus indica, Chinese parsley and roots of Alpinia galanga which were used in the preparation.
Drying besides was responsible for a terrible impairment in the quality of nutrient and particularly fish, peculiarly with regard to their colour. Although the maillard reaction is an obvious campaigner to explicate the amber colour after processing, the low sums of cut downing sugar peculiarly at the beginning of treating makes this hypothesis less convincing ( Louka et al. , 2004 ) . In some topographic points ( e.g. Hong Kong ) the dark colour and rancid olfactory property of healed fish is a mark of quality ( Bligh et al. , 1988 ) . The maillard reaction, in combination with oxypolimerisation of unsaturated fish oils, was responsible for darkening, toughening, and the unpalatable, acrimonious spirit associated with drawn-out drying procedure and storage of dehydrated fish ( Cutting, 1962 ) .
Scaning Electron Microscopy Examination
SEM exposure shows that different drying methods affect the concentration of the tissue construction. The fibres become more disrupted. Shark dendeng utilizing sun drying had a compact, consistent construction with barely any infinites between the fibres. Decreased protein solubility indicates some harm to the proteins in the dried merchandise, and this is farther echoed in the desiccation behaviour of the dried fish.
Descriptive analysis is one of the most utile trials for centripetal profiling and utilizations trained panels to observe and rate the strengths of centripetal properties in a merchandise ( Chambers and wolf, 1996 ; Grosso et al.
, 2008 ) . The mean mark of centripetal rating is more to the mark of 5 which means that Shark dendeng is accepted by panellist. Bligh et Al. ( 1988 ) concluded the major consequence of lipid debasement is development of aesthetically unsympathetic olfactory properties and spirits while the consequence of oxidative rancidity on alimentary quality of fish, particularly in footings of protein handiness, is problematic. Different methods of warming can doubtless give rise to differences in olfactory properties and spirits ; in peculiar, commercial heat sterilisation produces on overall character unlike that produced by other signifiers of warming.
This centripetal rating constituted subjective mensurating feature of merchandises ( Abdullah, 2000 ) .