The trend of increasing pollution in various environmental media is evident from the deteriorating air and water quality, higher noise levels, increasing vehicular emission etc. Realizing the urgent need for arresting the trend, Ministry adopted policy for Abatement of Pollution which provides for several mechanisms in the form of regulations, legislation, agreements, fiscal incentives and other measures to prevent and abate pollution.
Further, realizing that conventional pollution control approach by treatment at the end of the pipe is not delivering the desired benefits in terms of resource inspiration, the thrust has been shifted to pollution prevention and control through promotion of clean and low waste technology, re-use and recycling natural resource accounting, Environmental Audit and Institutional and Human Resource Development.
To give effect to various measures and policies on ground, multi-pronged approach is adopted which includes stringent regulations, Development of Environmental Standards, Control of Vehicular Pollution, preparation of Zoning Atlas for Spatial Environmental Planning including Industrial Estates etc. Major activities carried out under several programmer/schemes during the ear are as follows : Industrial Pollution Abatement through preventive strategies This scheme is an amalgamation of the three on-going schemes biz.
Environmental Audit, Adoption of Clean Technologies in Small Scale Industries and Environmental Statistics and Mapping, which have been continuing since eighth Five Year Plan. Due to encouraging results and benefits to various small scale units, these schemes are being continued during the 10th Five Year Plan also: Environmental Statement (As a part of Environmental Audit) Environmental audit is a management tool and provides a structure and impressive mechanism for ensuring that the activities and products of an enterprise do no cause unacceptable effects on the environment.
Submission of an Environmental Statement by polluting units seeking consent either under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 or the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 or both and the Authorization under the Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 1 989 has been made mandatory through a Gazette Notification of April, 1 993 under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
The Environmental Statement enables he units to undertake a comprehensive look at their industrial operations and facilities, understanding of material flows and focus on areas where waste reduction and consequently saving in-put cost if possible. The primary benefit of environmental audit is that it ensures cost effective compliance of laws, standards, regulations, company policies etc. During the year, action has been initiated to evolve model environmental statements in various sectors for facilitating comparison in use of raw material, water conservation, energy consumption etc.
A project has been sponsored to Central Pollution Control Board for evolving model environmental statement in the eight sectors biz. Sugar, Thermal Power Projects, Cement, paper and pulp, Pesticides, Bulk Drugs, Tanneries and Textiles Activities. Waste Minimization/Cleaner production Waste minimization is one of the strategies adopted for minimizing the industrial pollution. The objective of the scheme is to assist the small and medium scale industry in adoption of cleaner production practices.
A project has been sponsored to National Productivity Council on “Waste Minimization in Small Scale Industries” for establishment and running of waste minimization circles in clusters of small scale industries, capacity building in areas of cleaner production, establishment of demonstration units in selected industrial sectors etc. So far 115 waste minimization circles have been established through out the country and a large number of Organizations and Institutions have been trained in waste minimization activities.
The project was executed till November, 2002 under the World Bank project on Industrial Pollution Prevention (IPP) as Phase-I and Phase-II is now being continued with Ministry internal funds. Implementation of this project has helped in identification of more than 200 options for resource and energy conservation in various small scale industries. Environmental Statistics and Mapping For sound Environmental Management, reliable information base and the mapping of areas needing special attention for pollution prevention and control are a pre-requisite.
As a step in the direction, projects and pilot studies have been initiated through various research institutions and organizations. Under this program, following studies have been initiated and are in various stages of completion : GIS based Hydrological Modeling for Water Quality and Quantity in Caver’ River Basin by IT, Delhi. Geochemical baseline Mapping for Environmental Management by National Geophysical Research Institute, Hydrated.
Development and Promotion of Cleaner Technologies Life Cycle Assessment (LLC) Life Cycle Assessment is a decision chum management tool which provides information on the environmental effects of various products and processes so as to arrive at necessary corrective measures to make the entire process efficient with optimal utilization of resources and minimal wastes generation. LLC studies have been initiated in various sectors namely; Steel, Pulp and Paper and Thermal Power. The study in the Steel Sector was completed earlier and the report is under preparation.
The study relating to the Thermal Power Sector has been completed during the year while the study in the Pulp and Paper Sector is progressing as per schedule. Industrial Ecology Opportunities in Anklebones and Andesine Industrial Estates, Gujarat A study was undertaken to develop and implement Industrial Ecology Opportunities in Anklebones and Andesine Industrial Estates of Gujarat. The study has examined technologies used by industries in this region and suggested possible approach to achieve CEO-efficiency within the industrial states to reuse and recycle wastes and effluents generated from different industrial units.
The recommendations of the study have been discussed in a workshop with all stakeholders including State Government Agencies for their implementation and an Action Plan is being drawn by them. Development of Market Based Instruments for Regional Environmental Management in the Saws-Hazier Region in Gujarat The ongoing project on Development of Market Based Instruments for Saws-Hazier Region of Gujarat has been completed. The study report has observed that the taxes and incentives based on efficiency improvements align the pollution control agencies better with the polluters than the Command and Control (CA) regime.
Such an instrument also facilitates prescribing incentives for achieving the triple bottom line, biz economic- efficiency, environment-responsibility, and social-relevance entitling the Corporate to Clean Development Mechanism (CDC) and other cleaner- production benefits. The recommendations of the study have been discussed in a workshop with all concerned. Field Demonstration and Development of Bamboo Based Composites/Panels The ongoing project on field demonstration and development of bamboo eased composites/panels was continued during the year. Ender this project, commercial production of horizontal and vertical laminates have been made using Bambina bamboo Species. Construction of demonstration houses will be taken up during the current year. Recycling of Marble Slurry in Diaper, Restaurants A two years duration project has been sponsored for the manufacture of bricks and tiles from marble slurry in Diaper, Restaurants with the aim of utilizing wastes arising out of marble cutting and processing for the purpose of improving the local environment.
Bio-remediation of Railroaded Lake in Thane, Maharajah’s A project relating to cleaning of Railroaded Lake in Thane District in Maharajah’s using bio-remediation technique has been sponsored to Thane Municipal Corporation. Development of Natural Dyes from Forest Wastes A three years duration project has been sponsored to Forest Research Institute, Durance for development of natural dyes from forest wastes. Tag Protection Mission As per the Honorable Supreme Court’s Order the protection of the Tag Mammal is a National priority for the county.
In order to implement various schemes for the protection of the moon unmet, the Planning Commission decided to provide additional funds to the State Government. The Planning Commission approved RSI. 600 scores on a 50:50 cost sharing basis with the concerned State Government to implement various schemes in the Tag Trapezium Zone in the context of environmental protection of the Tag Mammal. In the first phase during the Ninth Five Year Plan, 10 projects were approved and are being implemented.
These are : Improvement in Electric Supply at Agar Improvement in Electric Supply in and around the rural areas of Agar and Fattener Sir Water supply (Agar) Water Supply (Mature-Virginian) Ghoul Barrage Solid Waste Management Storm Water Drainage System (Agar) Construction of one part of Agar bye-pass Widening of Agar Bye-pass Improvement of Master Plan of Roads of Agar City The Mission Management Board of the Tag Protection Programmer has approved another seven projects to be taken up during the Tenth Five Year Plan.
These are : Tag Trapezium Zone Heritage Corridor covering the areas of Tag Mammal, Agar Fort, Ram Bag, Mead-du-Data, Chinning-aka-Razz and river Yamaha. Tag Trapezium Zone Authority Environmental Centre and Allied Schemes. Planning of Tag Trapezium Zone and Study of Tag Ecocide / Conceptual Plan / Master Plan. Automatic Air Monitoring Stations, Display Boards and Networking at Agar- Mature and Fireboard. Hazardous Waste Secured Land-fill site for Agar and Mature.
Common Treatment Facility for Treatment of Bio-medical Wastes at Agar, and Public Awareness Programmer in Tag Trapezium These projects have been reviewed and steps have been taken for clearance of the AFC Memo of these Projects. Environmental Health Environmental Health Cell of the Ministry has commissioned nine environmental health studies in the cities of Lithuania, Delhi, Locknut, Mohammedan, Kola, Iambi, Manila (Tamil Undue), Bangor and Trinitarian for documenting Environmental Health Profile so that necessary reactive measures could be evolved and addressed for pollution control and protection of public health.
The Ministry in collaboration with the World Health Organization, World Bank, the United States Environmental Protection Authority, United States AID and Confederation of Indian Industry organized a two-day Conference on Environmental Health at New Delhi on 20-21 November, 2002 to sensitive the issues among the Central and State Government and other stakeholders in the country but also to come up with the consensus on the issues to act upon and to evolve strategies for the protection of public health.
The recommendations have been finalized and are to be implemented depending on availability Of resources and infrastructure Noise Pollution An increasing trend of noise pollution has been observed in the major cities of the country. To regulate and control noise pollution, the Government has issued various notifications under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. During the year noise limits for diesel generator sets (Upton 1 000 KAVA) manufactured on or after 1st July, 2003, were notified on 17th May, 2002.
The maximum permissible sound pressure level for new diesel generator sets tit rated capacity Upton 1 000 KAVA shall not exceed 75 db(A) at the distance of one meter from the enclosure surface. It has been made mandatory for the diesel generator sets to provide integral acoustic enclosure at the manufacturing stage itself. The State Pollution Control Boards and the Pollution Control Committees will regulate these limits. A Notification on Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000 was issued vide SO. 123(E) on 14th February, 2000 to curtail noise pollution in the country.
Accordingly, the use of loudspeakers and public address systems were restricted during night between 10. 00 p. M. ND 6. 00 a. M. Except for the closed auditorium, banquet halls, etc. Owing to various representations received from State Governments, these rules have been amended vide Notification 5. 0. 1088(E) issued on 1 lath October, 2002 to permit the use of loudspeakers or public address system during night hours (between 10. 00 p. M. To 12. 00 midnight) on or during any cultural or religious festival for a limited duration not exceeding 15 days in all during a calendar year.
Noise limits for vehicles at manufacturing stage were notified vide GARS 7(E) on 25th September, 2000 which would be effective from 1 statuary, 2003. To aka these standards commensurate with the emission standards for vehicles, the notified rules have been revised and are phased out in two stages. In the first phase, two wheelers, three wheelers, and passenger cars would comply with the notified norms from 1 SST January, 2003. A relaxation of db(A) has been given to passenger and commercial vehicles of various categories and would become effective from 1st July, 2003.
In the second phase, noise limits for vehicles at manufacturing stage would be applicable on and from 1st April, 2005 which would be at par with SEC norms and based on engine power for various categories of vehicles. Honorable Supreme Court, in September, 2001 has passed an interim order to comply with the notification of the Ministry issued on 5th October, 1999 to control noise from the bursting of fire crackers, which shall not exceed 125 db(Al) and 145 The manufacture, sale and use of fire crackers should be restricted accordingly.
While communicating this order to all State Governments and Union Territories, they have been requested to conduct the surveys to assess the noise pollution before and on Dependable day. Some of the surveys have been conducted during the years Of 2001 and 2002. The findings Of the surveys indicate a decreasing trend of noise during the festive season.
For creating awareness and for effective implementation of the rules and regulations for control of noise, a workshop was organized at West Bengal Pollution Control Board on 4th and 5th December, 2002 to train the officials of State Pollution Control Boards and the officials of Police Department of Eastern States. Air Pollution With a view to ascertain the ambient air quality at various locations, a monitoring network has been established comprising of 295 stations covering 98 cities/towns in 29 States and three Union Territories under the Air Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, as amended in 1988.
Under this programmer, four criteria air pollutants biz. Sulfur dioxide (SIS), oxides of nitrogen (Knox), Suspended Particulate Matter (SUMP) and Resalable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSVP) are regularly monitored at all the locations. Besides this, additional parameters such as resalable lead and other toxic trace matters and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are also being monitored in 10 metro cities of the country. The ambient air quality is monitored by Central pollution Control Board (CB) in coordination with the
State Pollution Control Boards, Pollution Control Committees and some of the universities and research institutes. The data, thus generated, are transmitted to CB for coruscation, analysis, compilation and publication as a consolidated report. The monitoring results indicate that levels of Sulfur dioxide and Nitrogen dioxide are within the stipulated standards, whereas the levels of SUMP and RSVP occasionally exceed, especially in Central and Northern parts of the country’ due to natural dust and vehicular emissions.
The air quality of different cities/towns for three critical pollutants has been impaired with the respective national ambient air quality standards and has been classified into four broad categories based on an Exceeded Factor (FEE) as calculated by the following ratio: Observed Annual mean Concentration of criteria pollutant Exceeded Factor = Annual standard for the Respective pollutant and area class The four air quality categories are : Critical pollution (C) When FEE is more than 1. 5 High pollution (H) When the FEE is between 1. -1. 5 Moderate pollution (M) With and between 0. 5-1. 0 Low pollution (L) Where the FEE is less than 0. 5 Based upon the indicators stated above, a quarterly report is compiled by CB in some of the major cities. For real time data collection, automatic monitoring stations have also been established. Under the Male declaration, 11 automatic monitoring stations are also planned at strategic locations to measure the trans-boundary movement of pollutants among the South Asia Association of Region Co- operations (SCARCE) Countries.
CB has also initiated indents studies in the cities of Delhi and Kanata to measures the level of IMO and PM. 5. To regulate and control air pollution, the source specific standards are notified from time to time. During the year 2002, emission standards for new diesel enumerator sets Upton 800 K were notified on 1 7th May, 2002 vide CARS 371 These rules shall apply to all new diesel engines for Geneses manufactured in India or imported into India after the effective date.
All engines Upton 20 XV shall carry SIS mark and meet the relevant IBIS specifications. Emission standards for diesel generator sets of more than 800 K had also been notified on 9th July, 2002 vide GARS 489(E). These standards shall be regulated by the State Pollution Control Boards or Pollution Control Committees as the case may be. It has also been made mandatory for all the diesel generator test Upton 800 KAVA or more to use the liquid fuel specified for commercial. High Speed Diesel (HAS) applicable for diesel vehicles in the area from time to time.
Vehicular Pollution Control The Ministry plays a coordinating role in the field of controlling of vehicular pollution with the concerned Ministries and its associated bodies/ organizations including the Ministry of Surface Transport, the Ministry Of Petroleum and Natural Gas and the Ministry of Industry for pagination of automobile technology, improvement in fuel quality, expansion of urban public transport systems and promotion of integrated traffic management as he vehicular emissions is the major cause for deterioration of urban ambient air quality.
The Gross Emission Standards for vehicles have been prescribed from time to time and a road map is prepared to improve the quality of the fuel. The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas also constituted an Expert Committee on Auto Fuel Policy under the Chairmanship of Dry. R. A. Masher, Director General, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (SIR) to recommend an Auto Fuel Policy for the country together with a road map for its implementation.
The Committee was represented by the Ministry ND significant contribution was made in preparation of the Policy. The Committee has submitted its final report to the Government of India in August, 2002 and the recommendations of this Committee are under consideration for implementation. As per the directions of the Honorable supreme court in w. P. NO. 13029 of 1985 by M. C. Meat vs.. Onion of India and others, the Ministry coordinated the preparation of action plans for control Of vehicular pollution for compulsory switch over to CNN/ALP in the cities of Mohammedan, Kola, Pine and Kanata which were found to be equally or more polluted than Delhi. The implementation of the plan submitted for these cities is being reviewed. Nine cities biz. Agar, Varnish, Kanata, Locknut, Abridged, Shari, Jodhpurs, Patina and Pine were also identified for improving air quality.
Action plans for these cities are being coordinated by the Ministry. Promotion of the Ethanol Blended Petrol and Bio-diesel have also been taken up and Ethanol Blended Petrol has been introduced in the selective States as a first phase. Industrial Pollution Control Status of pollution control in 17 categories of Identified Polluting Industries The Central Pollution Control Board (CB) has identified 1551 large and tedium industries in 1 7 categories of highly polluting industries, contributing maximum to the pollution load.