Practice WITH ORGANIZATIONS AND COMMUNITIES
This pattern class examines how organisations and communities serve as a lens for understanding subjugation, unequal entree to resources, and economic and societal justness. This category focuses on how systemic subjugation and societal justness emerge in bureau, organisational and community scenes. The class facilitates the development of pattern accomplishments that farther societal justness.
Topographic point of Course in the Curriculum
This class and Generalist Social Work Practice with Individuals, Families and Groups I and II comprise the three Renaissance man societal work pattern classs. Students must be matriculated and in field arrangement ( or in a field practicum lab option ) before they enroll in the class.
This class begins with an analysis of the larger structural context of societal work pattern situated chiefly within the United States. With a focal point on easing service bringing at the bureau, organisational and community degrees, this class considers the functions that professional values and moralss, subjugation and societal justness drama in the development and integrating of pattern accomplishments. This class focuses on appraisal, planning, intercession and rating within organisations and communities with specific focal point on how subjugation and societal justness emerge within these venues.A
Upon completion of this class pupils will be expected to:
1.A Understand the application of professional values and moralss in pattern, showing a get downing consciousness of historical and modern-day professional developments.
2.A With peculiar attending to bureau, organisational and community scenes, place how subjugation has been institutionalized in the United States and serves as a barrier to just entree to chances, power & A ; authorization, economic resources, and societal justness
3.A Demonstrate, through schoolroom treatment and assignments, sensitiveness and consciousness sing subjugation and privilege, including an grasp of the influence of race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, category, and gender in their ain lives.
4.A Develop a beginning degree apprehension of service bringing systems and their effects on diverse populations and how they relate to the kineticss of aid seeking and client entry experiences at the organisational degree.
5.A Complete assignments that demonstrate a beginning degree apprehension of how to carry on organisational and bureau appraisal and how to be after and implement intercessions in the bureau environment.
6.A Develop an apprehension of how to measure communities as dynamic systems and how to develop appropriate program ( s ) for empowerment-based intercession ( s ) .
7.A Develop capacity to plan appropriate rating schemes for organisational and community intercessions.
8. Develop get downing flat ability to measure demands every bit good as to be after, implement and measure intercessions with work groups, showing an apprehension of undertaking group intents and procedures.
Netting, F.E. , Kettner, P. M. & A ; McMurtry, S. L. ( 2008 ) . Social work macro pattern. White Plains, NY: Longman Publishing Group.
Adams, M. , Bell, L.A. and Griffith, P. ( Eds. ) . ( 2000 ) . Readings for Diversity and Social Justice: An Anthology on Racism, Sexism, Anti-Semitism, Heterosexism, Classism, and Ableism. New York: Routledge. One Daily Newspaper Articles placed on e-reserve required for the Class as indicated
To finish this class successfully, pupils are expected to take part, relevant to the subject, in15 category Sessionss of one hr and 50 proceedingss each and 10 hours of guided instructional clip.In add-on, pupils are expected to finish all needed readings and written assignments for this course.A To heighten the integrating between theory and pattern 4 hours of the guided instructional clip is related to this category specifically and is fulfilled by the Social Justice-Organizational Assessment and the Social Justice Media Assignment.
Students are expected to go to category, on clip, and to the full prepared for discussion.A Lateness or absenteeism is non acceptable. If an exigency occurs that precludes attending or promptness the pupil is responsible for allowing the teacher know prior to the category. Email reference and phone Numberss are at the top of this page. Assignments must be handed in on their due day of the month. Any late assignment is automatically downgraded one full class for every hebdomad, or portion thereof, that it is late.
All paper entries are printed, 1 ” border about, double spaced, 12 platinum fount, paginated, with mentions in APA manner.
Regularly scheduled category will dwell of talk, treatment and pupil presentations. Students are expected to come to category holding completed all readings and assignments for that hebdomad.
Guided Instructional Assignments ( Both are required. )
Social Justice-Organizational Appraisal:
Identify an bureau, non your arrangement, in which you have an involvement. Gather that bureau ‘s stuffs to include Mission Statement, Annual Report, information available on their web site, and any programmatic booklets or circulars available. Interview, or effort to interview, person at the bureau about the mission and intent. Visit the bureau and do certain that you spend at least 30 proceedingss in their waiting country.
To acknowledge the purpose of an bureau with respect to societal justness and to get down an rating of their existent execution of it.
Two-page paper presenting bureau mission and ends, stated attachment to societal justness rules, designation of elements of subjugation, relation to category and reading stuff, and the NASW Code of Ethics. ( No mentions necessary )
Social Justice Media Assignment:
Position and analyse the filmClang, Philadelphia, Paperclips, American History X,or a made for Television film or 4 episodes of a Television situation comedy approved by the instructor.A
To acknowledge how others may show issues of societal justness and subjugation and review its presentation to the populace
Two page contemplation paper. ( No mentions necessary )
Self-Assessment Paper: ( 2 to 3 pages )
Describe a state of affairs in your life where you needed aid and went to an bureau, infirmary or other organisation. What was it like to be in demand? How were you treated? Did you feel like you got assist? ( Make mention to the stuff in Adams, M. , Bell, L.A. and Griffith, P. ( Eds. ) . ( 2000 ) . Readings for Diversity and Social Justice: An Anthology on Racism, Sexism, Anti-Semitism, Heterosexism, Classism, and Ableism. )
Oppression and Privilege in Our Lifes: ( 3 to 4 pages )
Describe in item a state of affairs where you observed an act of subjugation in your personal or professional life. What happened? To whom? Who else was involved? Why do you place it as subjugation? Then, depict a state of affairs where you observed yourself or person else profiting from a privilege, where because of some personal property, you or they received a benefit where another might non. What happened? Why do you place it as privilege? ( Make mention to the stuff in Adams, M. , Bell, L.A. and Griffith, P. ( Eds. ) . ( 2000 ) .Readings for Diversity and Social Justice: An Anthology on Racism, Sexism, Anti-Semitism, Heterosexism, Classism, and Ableism.A 4 extra mentions required )
Organizational Appraisal: ( 3 to 5 pages )
You have already completed the Social Justice-Organizational Assessment. Now look at your ain bureau. Gather the same stuffs: Mission Statement, Annual Report, information available on the web page, and any programmatic booklets or circulars available. Analyze their purpose to implement societal justness. How does the NASW Code of Ethics use? Identify at least one country where the site could better their execution of societal justness. Plan a societal work intercession to assist rectify. Specify how you would measure your attempt. ( 4 mentions required )
Community Practice: ( 5 to 8 pages + a map )
Look at your community, it can be where you live, are placed or work. Pick a starting point. Map out 3 blocks in each way. If you were a client in this “ vicinity ” could you acquire your demands met? What services are at that place? Would you hold entree to them? What hindrances are at that place to services and for whom are they hindrances? What services alterations would you do in this “ vicinity ” , why, and how would you mensurate their success? ( 4 mentions required )
Rating and Assignment Schedule
Class Attendance, readiness and engagement: September 3 – December 17A 20 %
Self Assessment: September 17thA 10 %
Oppression and Privilege in Our Lifes: October 8th 10 %
Social Justice-Organizational Appraisal: October 29th 10 %
Organizational Appraisal: November 12th 10 %
Community Practice: December 3rd 15 %
Social Justice Media Assignment by December 10th: 10 %
Student Presentations: last 3 classesA 15 %
Entire: 100 %
September 3:Introduction to Social Justice: Practice with Organizations and Communities
Introductions, Class Overview, Beginning Discussion of Social Justice.
Finn, J.L. & A ; Jacobsen, M. ( 2003 ) . Just pattern: Stairss towards a new societal work paradigm. Journal of Social Work Education. 39 ( 1 ) , 57-58.
Netting, et. Al. Social work macro pattern. Chapter 2. ( The historical roots of macro pattern ) , pp. 36-68.
Parker, L. ( 2003 ) A societal justness theoretical account for clinical societal work pattern. Affilia. 18 ( 3 ) , 272+ Reisch, M. ( 2002 ) . Specifying societal justness in a socially unfair universe. Families in Society.
83 ( 4 ) , 343-354.
September 10:Social Justice as Reflected in Professional Values and Principles of Practice
Professional values and their deductions for pattern. Agency policies and mission statements as looks of values and as a platform for services.
Bisman, C. ( 2004 ) . Social work values: The moral nucleus of the profession. British Journal of Social Work, 34 ( 1 ) , 109-123.
Birkenmaier, J. ( 2003 ) . On going a societal justness practician. Social Thought: Journal of Religion in the Social Services. 22 ( 2-3 ) , 41-54.
Breton, M. ( 1999 ) . Sharing power. Journal of Progressive Human Services, 10 ( 1 ) , 33-51.
Ewalt, P. L. & A ; Mokuau, N. ( 1995 ) .A Self-government from a Pacific perspective.A Social Work 40 ( 2 ) , 168-176.
Fawcett, S. B. ( 1991 ) . Some values steering community research and action. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 24, 621-636.
September 17:Ethical motives in Social Work Practice
Ethical motives as looks of professional values.A Ethical struggles and their declaration at all degrees of pattern.
Freud, S. & A ; Krug, S. ( 2002 ) . Beyond the codification of moralss, Part 1: Complexities of ethical decision-making in societal work pattern. Families in Society, 83 ( 4 ) , 355-364.
Furman, R. ( 2003 ) . Models for understanding values disagreements and ethical quandary in managed mental wellness for societal work in the United States.
International Social Work.46 ( 1 ) , 37-52.
NASW codification of moralss ( 1996 ) . Washington D.C. : National Association of Social Workers
September 24:Definitions and Conceptual Themes in Oppression and Social JusticeA
A theoretical model for understanding the structural and institutional kineticss of subjugation and the battle for societal justness in United States.
Caputo, R. ( 2002 ) . Social justness, the moralss of attention and market economic systems. Families in Society. 83 ( 4 ) , 355-364.
Caputo, R. ( 2004 ) . Womans who die immature: The cumulative disadvantage of race. Affilia.
19 ( 1 ) , 10-23.
Frankenberg, R. ( 1997 ) .Growing up white: The societal geographics of race. In D. Kendall.
Race Class and Gender in a Diverse Society, 153-173.
Hartman, A. ( 1993 ) . The professional is political.A Social Work, July, 365-366
Sheppard, M. ( 2002 ) . Mental wellness and societal justness: Gender, race and psychological effects of unfairness. British Journal of Social Work. 32 ( 6 ) , 779-797.
Smith, C.J. & A ; Young, D.S. The multiple impacts of TANF, ASFA and Mandatory Drug Sentencing for households effected by maternal captivity. ( 2003 ) . Children and Youth Services Review. 25 ( 7 ) , 535-552.
October 1:Appraisal Schemes for Larger Systems
How appraisal of organisations and bureaus sets the phase for future work.
Hyde, C. ( 2004 ) . Multicultural development in human service bureaus: Challenges and solutions. Social Work, 49 ( 1 ) , 7-16.
Mechanic, D. ( 1962 ) . Beginnings of power of lower participants in complex organisations.
Administrative Science Quarterly, 7, 349-364.
Neting et Al ( 2004 ) . Social work macro pattern. Chapter 5, ( Understanding communities ) , pp. 125-157.
Robinson, M. , Barbee, A. , Martin, M. , Singer, T. & A ; Yegidid, B. ( 2003 ) . The organisational costs of caregiving: A call to action. Administration in Social Work.27 ( 1 ) , 83-102.
October 8:Impact of Organization Structure and Process on Oppression and Social Justice Sensitivity, self-awareness and apprehension of the kineticss of help-seeking and how organisational construction and process impact client entry experiences and enhance or diminish societal justness.
Germain, C. B. ( 1978 ) .A Space: An ecological variable in societal work practice.A Social casework.A November, 1978.
Gitterman, A. & A ; Miller, I.A ( 1989 ) . The influence of the organisation on clinical practice.A
Clinical Social Work Journal.A 17 ( 2 ) , A 152-164.
Gutheil, I. ( 1992 ) . Sing the physical environment: An indispensable constituent in societal work practice.A Social Work, 13 ( 5 ) , 391-396.
Nybell, L.M. & A ; Grey, S.S. ( 2004 ) . Race, topographic point, infinite: Meanings of cultural competency in three kid public assistance bureaus. Social Work. 49 ( 1 ) , 17-26.
Zayas, L. H. et. Al. ( 1996 ) . Clinicians ‘ definition of ethnically sensitive therapy.
Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 270, 78-82.
October:Factors that Reduce Oppression and Further Social Justice in Agency Services The linkage of bureau environment with service to clients.A Examination of bureau policies, values and beliefs about client systems.
Barratt, M. ( 2003 ) . Organizational support for evidence-based pattern within kid and household societal work: A collaborative survey. Child and Family Social Work. 8 ( 2 ) , 143-150.
Beresford, P. & A ; Croft, S. ( 2004 ) . Service users and practicians reunited: The cardinal constituent for societal work reform. British Journal of Social Work. 34 ( 1 ) , 53-68.
Dyche, L. & A ; Zayas, L.H. ( 1995 ) . The value of wonder and naivete for the cross-cultural clinical psychologist. Family Process, 34 ( Dec. ) , A 390-399.
Netting, et. Al. Social work macro pattern. Chapter 8 ( Analyzing human service organisations ) .
Peters, A.J. ( 2003 ) . Isolation or inclusion: Creating safe infinites for sapphic and cheery young person.
Families in Society. 84 ( 3 ) , 331-337.
Wilson, M. ( 2003 ) .Preventing developmental disablements and advancing maternal and child wellness: Womans forming for alteration. Affilia. 18 ( 4 ) , 473-478.
October 22:Planing Intervention Strategies Development of abilities to place a concern, design a job statement and program of action
Aranda, M. , Villa, V. , Trejo, I. , Ramirez, R. and Ranny, M. ( 2003 ) . El portal Latin American Alzheimer’s diseases undertaking: theoretical account plan for Latin American health professionals of Alzhemer disease affected people. Social Work. 48 ( 2 ) , 259-272.
Guitierrez, L. GlenMaye, L. , & A ; DeLois, D.A ( 1995 ) .A The organisational context of empowerment pattern: Deductions for societal work administration.A Social Work. 40 ( 2 ) , 249-258.
Neting et Al ( Eds. ) . ( 2004 ) . Social work macro pattern. Chapter 3 ( Understanding community and organisational jobs ) . Chapter 9 ( Constructing support for the proposed alteration ) . Chapter 10 ( Choosing Appropriate schemes and tactics ) .
Shera, W. & A ; Page, J. ( 1995 ) Making more effectual human service organisations through schemes of empowerment.A Administration in Social Work. Vol. 10 ( 4 ) .
October 29:Evaluation of Interventions
Ability to understand importance, restraints, and function of ongoing rating of practice.A
Neting et Al ( Eds. ) . ( 2004 ) . Social work macro pattern. Chapter 11 ( Planning, implementing, monitoring, and measuring the intercession ) .
Handouts Provided in Class
November 5:Understanding Oppression and Social Justice through Community Assessment
Development of ecological attack, sensitiveness and get downing ability to look at communities as dynamic systems. Get down to utilize appropriate tools to measure community strengths, failings, demands and systemic variables. Understand the function and application of subjugation, privilege, societal justness and authorization schemes.
Castelloe, P. , Watson, T. , & A ; White, C. ( 2002 ) . Participatory alteration: An integrative attack to community pattern. Journal of Community Practice. 10 ( 4 ) , 7-31.
Mizrahi, T. ( 2001 ) . The Status of community forming in 2001: community pattern, context, complexnesss, contradictions and complexnesss. Research on Social Work Practice. 11 ( 2 ) , 176-189.
Neting et Al ( Eds. ) Social work macro pattern. Chapter 5 ( Understanding communities ) .
November:Planing Community Interventions Variety of intercession schemes and the footing for taking them.
Neting et Al ( 2004 ) . Social work macro pattern. Chapter 6 ( Analyzing communities ) , pp. 169-188
November 19:Community-focused Interventions and Evaluation
Get downing ability to implement a program of action and rating methods.
Bakalinsky, R.A ( 1994 ) . The little group in community organisation practice.A Social Work with Groups 7 ( 2 ) , A 87-96.
Luckey, I.A ( 1996 ) .A HIV/AIDS bar in the African American community: A An incorporate community-based pattern approach.A Journal of Community Practice, 2 ( 4 )
December 3:Student Presentations and Review Each pupil chooses one assignment/product and nowadayss to the Class. ( 1/3 each hebdomad )
December 10:Student Presentations and reexamine Each pupil chooses one assignment/product and nowadayss to the Class.
December 17:Student Presentations and Wrap-up Each pupil chooses one assignment/product and nowadayss to the Class. Additional Policies and Procedures:
Guide for Rating Paper Assignments
The undermentioned summarizes the outlooks and criterions that are used to rate documents or essay inquiries.
A.A paper that is good written, interesting, and demonstrates an apprehension of the subject. Essential information is included.A Literature is drawn upon judiciously and referenced appropriately.A Ideas are expressed clearly, and a cogent and convincing instance is presented. The subject is approached creatively and the pupil presents his/her ain thoughts and observations.A The manner the stuff is handled suggests that the pupil learned, took advantage of the class and its readings, and accepted the challenge posed by the assignment.A AN EXCELLENT PAPER OR ANSWER THAT EXCEEDS THE EXPECTATIONS OF THE ASSIGNMENT.
B+ .A more than satisfactory paper.A The subject is handled good, is written clearly, and demonstrates considerable work and attempt in organisation and presentation.A Literature or mentions are used and cited suitably and demo that the pupil has done research on his/her own.A It is easy to read and interesting.A The pupil has been originative in his/her attack to turn toing thoughts and points.A A VERY Good PAPER OR ANSWER THAT IS MORE THAN SATISFACTORY.
B.A satisfactory paper run intoing the outlooks of how the inquiry or subject should be covered.A It is grammatically right, emended, organized, and referenced in showing relevant points.A Necessary and relevant content is included ; irrelevant or immaterial stuff is omitted.A The paper demonstrates pupil ‘s cognition of the subject and indicates pupil input beyond text or category notes.A There are no serious spreads and few incorrect or wrong points ( except those from inventive thought or hazard taking sentiments ) .A A Good Answer OR PAPER THAT SATISFACTORILY MEETS EXPECTATIONS OF THE ASSIGNMENT.A A A A A
C.The paper is ill-defined and hard to read or understand.A It raises uncertainty about the pupil ‘s appreciation of the topic.A Poor authorship, inappropriate mentions, and unfocussed narrative manner may qualify this paper.A Irrelevant points or thoughts are given as if the pupil hopes to cover all bases in hopes that some will be correct.A The work demonstrates a minimal investing of clip and/or attempt. There are a sufficient figure of points made and mentions used to propose the pupil has some apprehension of the subject or inquiry.AA BORDERLINE ANSWER OR PAPER THAT BARELY MEETS EXPECTATIONS OF THE ASSIGNMENT AND GRADUATE SCHOOL STANDARDS.
F.A paper that fails to minimally turn to the subject or respond to the question.A No grounds is offered to bespeak pupil ‘s apprehension of the class content.A There is small grounds of independent learning.A Writing is hapless, doing it hard to understand the pupil ‘s point of focus.A There may be a inquiry of plagiarism or unethical patterns in fixing or finishing the assignment.A AN ANSWER OR PAPER THAT IS UNACCEPTABLE BY GRADUATE SCHOOLS STANDARDS AND FAILS TO MEET EXPECTATIONS OF THE ASSIGNMENT.
Students are expected to dispatch their duties within the semester.A Agreement to give an incomplete is an exclusion granted under unusual fortunes
Students With Disabilities
Any pupil with a documented disablement ( e.g. physical, acquisition, ocular, hearing, psychiatric, etc. ) and who has registered with the Office of Disability Services at 718-817-0655 may be entitled to accommodations.A Students should register with the Office of Disability Services at the beginning of the semester.
Linkage between Social Justice and Integrative Field Seminar
To ease better integrating between Social Justice and Field Seminar, two-pronged attempts will be made jointly and by single Practice teachers:
Individual Practice Instructors should establish the undermentioned stairss in the class demands and stipulate them in the single class course of study:
1. Within the 1st five hebdomads of the term pupils will give their Practice Instructors and Faculty Advisors ( i.e. , integrative seminar leaders ) transcripts of the educational understandings they developed with their field teacher.
2. By hebdomad 10 pupils must give their Practice Instructors and module advisers a 2-3 page study that illustrates how the schoolroom content and field practicum are linked.A This study should depict and measure how classroom readings and treatments have informed field direction through a societal justice/macro pattern lens and frailty versa.A It should exemplify how field direction ( i.e. , supervising ) and assignments have informed their apprehension of schoolroom content. The study should place spreads or tensenesss that exist between what pupils are larning in the schoolroom and what they are larning in the field.
3. By hebdomad 15 pupils must turn in a 2nd study, similar to the first study that includes, in add-on, any alterations or programs for rectification that have been developed to better the nexus between schoolroom and field practicum.
Practice Teachers and Faculty Advisors will utilize the studies to guarantee that meaningful links between the schoolroom and the field that support pupils ‘ acquisition are established.A Practice classs and Integrative Seminar contents may be adjusted based on the pupil feedback.
- Plagiarism is a signifier of academic dishonesty, which involves utilizing person else ‘s written work or even thoughts without giving proper recognition or presenting as one ‘s ain, work that has been partly or entirely prepared by person else.A “ Person else ” may be another pupil, a published writer, a professor, a friend, or a concern or online service that sells or distributes such documents or stuffs. These thoughts and words can come from an Internet beginning, a newspaper article, an unpublished thesis, a conference presentation, the popular imperativeness and scholarly diaries every bit good as other beginnings.
- The nature of the “ work ” most normally plagiarized is written work.A However, it besides can be thoughts, constructs, organisational construction, informations sets, electronic media, Sons and other artworks.
- Plagiarism is considered a signifier of fraud or prevarication. One does non hold to deliberately try to lead on the reader to be guilty of plagiarism.A Plagiarism besides can go on unwittingly by non cognizing how and when to mention sources.A
- Plagiarism prevents pupils from larning new stuff and accomplishments. It cheats pupils of larning chances by non leting them to be challenged and to turn intellectually.
Examples of plagiarism include:
- Copying person else ‘s text verbatim, without utilizing citation Markss and giving recognition to the beginning. It is no defence to claim one has “ forgotten ” to make so.
- Paraphrasing person else ‘s work without giving him or her recognition.
- Rewriting borrowed stuff by merely dropping a word here and at that place, replacing a few words for others, or traveling around words or sentences, without giving proper recognition.
- With the coming of the Internet, plagiarism has taken two signifiers:
- Copying a schoolmate ‘s work or utilizing a former pupil ‘s paper.A Even copying one sentence constitutes plagiarism.
- Making up a commendation or doing up informations.
– Buying a term paper and seeking to go through it off as one ‘s own.A [ These are comparatively easy to descry. ]
– Downloading or film editing and gluing text straight from online beginnings without giving proper recognition.
Can one plagiarise one ‘s ego?
– Either the individual submits work for a class that was written for a old class, or she or he turns in the same paper ( or subdivisions of the paper ) for two different classs at the same time.
What are the punishments for plagiarism?
- Plagiarism is non merely a serious academic discourtesy, it is besides considered to be a breach of professional moralss. Consequently, the punishments can be rather terrible.
- The pupil who plagiarizes can have a neglecting class non merely for the assignment, but besides for the full course.A This is up to the discretion of the professor learning the class.
- The affair may besides be referred to Dean Susan Egan at Lincoln Center. In Tarrytown, the affair may be referred to Dean Jane Edwards. The Deans determine what other actions to take, including whether dismissal of the pupil from the plan is warranted. Please refer to the GSSS Student Handbook for an account of the effects of plagiarism.
Why do some pupils plagiarize if it can potentially be them their callings?
- Most pupils who do plagiarize are non unafraid with either their cognition of the stuff or their authorship accomplishments. They fear having a bad class for the assignment. They consider themselves as good or first-class pupils. The idea of having a bad class is emotionally baleful.
- Many pupils who plagiarize are overwhelmed and have non allotted adequate clip to research and compose the paper.
- Some pupils who plagiarize do so to salvage clip and attempt.
- They do non recognize that many professors have electronic hunt engines designed to observe plagiarism.
How can you keep your academic unity and avoid plagiarism?
- Plan your clip sagely. Give yourself ample clip to research and compose your first bill of exchange of your paper.
- Know when to utilize quote Markss, individual quotation mark Markss, and when you may merely give the name of the writer and the day of the month of publication of the beginning. This means you have to cognize the difference between a paraphrasis and a citation. There is a distinguishable difference.
- Have person who is familiar with academic composing read early bill of exchanges of your paper.
- Buy a transcript of the American Psychological Association ‘s Publication Manual. This manual contains the criterions that faculty at GSSS adhere to when authorship and publication documents.
- Attend APA composing workshops offered at GSSS.
- Use the authorship clinic at GSSS.
- When in uncertainty as to whether or non you are mentioning a beginning decently, confer with your class teacher.