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German cities were in ruins from a massive bombing campaign. Germany was divided onto 4 zones Of occupation by the victorious powers, pending a more permanent political settlement. Japan also was in ruins from extensive bombing. Prominent military leaders were tried and convicted of war crimes, but the emperor was allowed to retain his position. Japan was temporarily placed under U. S. Military rule. England was devastated by the war, having experienced extensive bombing during the 1940 blitz by the Germans. The economy depended for recovery upon aid from the United States.

England rapidly phased out most of its remaining imperial holdings in the years immediately following the war. France had not experienced the enormous human losses sustained in the First World War, but would have to recover from the effects of Nazi occupation. Retribution was taken upon collaborators. Like England, France would be compelled to dismantle its colonial empire in the years following the war. This was a particularly traumatic and drawn out process for the French, in Algeria and in Vietnam where they fought prolonged and bitter wars in an attempt to maintain their colonial control.

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England and France no longer held a status of power comparable either to the United States or the Soviet union. The Russian people had suffered immeasurably during the war, and western Russia was devastated by the land warfare which was primarily on Russian territory. But, in the process of defeating the Germans, the Russians had built a large and powerful army, which occupied most of Eastern Europe at the end of the war. The great resources and population of Russia assured that the Soviet Union would be, along with the United States, one of two super-powers.

The United States economy was greatly stimulated by the war, even more so than in World War l. The depression was brought decisively to an end, and ewe industrial complexes were built all over the United States. Spared the physical destruction of war, the U . S. Economy dominated the world economy. After 4 years Of military buildup, the U. S. Had also become the leading military power. The position of the United States as world leader was now more obvious than ever.

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