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Research the impact of fossil fuels emission from motor vehicles on human health. Summarize your findings. Fossil fuel emission from motor vehicles as an outdoor air pollution produces pollutants in the air which leads to negative impacts on human health. Climate Change and Health, 2010). These pollutants mainly include carbon dioxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NON). The toxic pollutant nitrogen dioxide is ejected in the air during the process of combustion and it leads to numerous health issues especially on young children. Studies have found that “long-term exposure to NON” increases the number of children who attracts asthma, furthermore, nitrogen dioxide have also shown to slow down or stop the growth of lungs of young children. (Air Quality and Health, 201 1).

On the other hand, carbon dioxide have known to affect the climate through trapping heat and energy. Therefore, fossil fuel emission indirectly affects the hang of global climates which then leads to health issues. (Risks and Response, 2003). One of these issues is that extreme heat causes thousands of deaths. Secondly, extreme heat causes pollen in air to be more than usual, which could trigger asthma. Furthermore, increased temperature extends to lives of female Anopheles which is a species of mosquitoes that transmits Malaria. Climate Change and Health, 2012). Therefore, fossil fuel emission directly and indirectly attributes to numerous health issues especially on young children. B. Based on 300 million motor vehicles, the Chinese would have to dispose of r recycle several hundred million tires per year. Evaluate the environmental impact of tire discard. The number of automobiles in China have been significantly increasing over the past decades, tire recycling and disposal now becomes a new problem in China. There are numerous issues that tire discard brings to the environment.

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Firstly, during the production, using, discarding and recycling process Of tires, mass amount of chemical formaldehyde is released into the air which significantly increases risk of respiratory issues such as asthma due to inhalation of formaldehyde. Other parts of human body which comes in intact with formaldehyde also attracts numerous problems such as tiredness of the eye and negative effects on the lung. (Formaldehyde, 2002). Secondly, discarded tires appear to be a suitable and favorable place for mosquitoes to reproduce.

One species of mosquitoes that lay eggs in these discarded tires are the ones that spread yellow fever among humans. Therefore, disposal of tires can be very dangerous, if they are left there for months or even years, it is very likely that mosquitoes will lay their eggs in these tires and with the increased number of mosquitoes, affection rate of yellow fever may also increase. The physical school environment, 2003). Lastly, substances which are used to produce tires lead to dramatic health issues on humans.

For instance, it was found that the more than half of “cancer deaths caused by occupational risk factors occur in the developed world” is due to large usage of chemical substances including asbestos and other particles that are used in production of tires. (Protecting and promotion health at workplace, 2007). Therefore, considering the massive amount of several hundred millions Of tires which are produced in China, the related impact of tire production becomes a great environmental and health issue coolly. C. Search the website of Asia Times, Wynn. Times. Mom, or elsewhere, for details on Chinese attempts to control dangerously high air pollution in Beijing in time for the 2008 Olympics. Summarize your findings. In China, air pollution has been a problem ever since the number of industries and automobiles increased sharply. In the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the Chinese government decided to try to control air pollution through controlling the number of automobiles on road. There are fives days in a week excluding the weekend, and there are two numbers (the last number on he plate of the automobile) to be eliminated from driving in central regions of Beijing.

For example, numbers 1 and 6 are not allowed to go on road on Mondays and numbers 2 and 7 and eliminated from driving on Tuesdays. By eliminating the number of cars, the problem of traffic jam has significantly decreased, and due to less use of automobiles, combustion of cars also decreased. (Begging’s ‘Green Olympics’ test run fizzles, 2007) As less pollutants are ejected into the air, control of air pollution in Beijing can be said successful, and resulting a clearer blue sky above Beijing. (Begging’s ‘Green

Olympics’ test run fizzles, 2007)Another attempt to control air pollution is that in order to encourage people to take the bus or subway instead of driving, 8,000 buses were replaced new buses that “meet the stringent Euro Ill emission standards. (Begging’s ‘Green Olympics’ test run fizzles, 2007)This means that the new buses are designed to be more environmentally green and creating less pollutants in the air. Furthermore, 28 millions trees have been successfully planted surrounding Beijing with an attempt to make Beijing more clean and green. Begging’s ‘Green Olympics’ test run fizzles, 2007) 2. Studies have found that some bottled water comes from municipal water us plies and that bottled water frequently contains contaminants. Considering also waste and energy associated with bottling, under what conditions does it make sense to drink bottled water or to avoid drinking it? (10 points) Support your statements with at least TWO scientific references. Write your answer in point format.

Contaminants in water supplies: – Bacterial contaminants in water supply may accumulate over time, these contaminants include: 1 . Legionary ? A bacteria which grows in supplies such was water pipes 0 Leads to Legionnaire’s disease CLC Especially grow in long water pipes in large buildings C] Can be prevented through controlling water quality and water temperature to about 25-CHIC (a temperature which they are not able to reproduce) (Application Of guidelines in specific circumstances, 2009) 2.

Salmonella Radar – A bacteria found in bottled water C]A waterborne bacteria which led to an outbreak of sickness of over 1 000 cases II Grown in a water main where water is stored (Guidelines for drinking, 1996) – Fecal contamination in water 1. E. Coli – A bacteria which suggests fecal contamination of water D Usually enters water through human excretions 0 Although a small amount of E. Coli cannot indicate that contamination is present in water, it does suggest that water is not clean enough to drink without purifying C] Presence of E. Oil may lead to health risks of humans (Guide to hygiene and sanitation aviation, 2009) Waste and energy associated with bottling: – Plastics are now a major factor which contributes to pollution of ocean – Plastics makes up to about 10% (1 98 million tons) of municipal solid wastes in 1 996, and this number is growing each year – Water bottles are 40% of all plastic productions Of all the disposed water bottles, only 40% are being recycled for further use (EPA Awards $214,000 to Reduce sources of ocean pollution; 2012) Generation of plastics have been significantly increasing in the past decades, however, only 5. % of plastics are being recovered – The massive amount of waste created each year leads to problems in reducing waste (Common wastes & materials, 201 2) Conditions under which bottled water should be used: – In order to decrease usage of bottled water, people should only consume bottled water when they do not have regular access Of other sources of water such as tap water – By decreasing the amount of consumption of bottled water, less of similar products will be produced thus leading to decreased use of plastic water bottles 3.

In each of the following cases, state and explain the route(s) of entry of the toxic substance to the body. I. A child living in an old house in which the paint is peeling is found to have an elevated level of lead in his blood. Lead IS a component of some paints which are used to paint walls. There are two routes of entry which are inhalation and ingestion.

Inhalation is when the particles of lead comes off from paints on the wall and goes into the air, when child is in that environment, he may inhale those lead particles through breathing. Since the paint is peeling off, it will probably fall onto a surface including a table or on the ground, and according to the ‘hand-to-mouth” behavior, a child who usually plays on the floor may accidentally ingest dust of lead or a piece of paint. Lead exposure in children, 2007) ii. A worker in a retail dry-cleaning establishment who specialized in removing stains by rubbing them with special solvents develops liver disease, diagnosed to be caused by chlorinated hydrocarbons. In the dry-cleaning industry, workers are always exposed to carbon tetrachloride, which is a toxic chemical that can enter human body mainly through inhalation through nose, ingestion through mouth and absorption through skin.

Inhalation through nose are due to toxic particles in air, through the action of breathing, these toxic particles are easily transmitted to lungs of workers. Ingestion may take place when the worker accidentally ingests chemicals which are left on their hands or clothes, and dermal absorption may occur when skin of the worker is exposed to the toxic chemicals under a long-term condition. (Tetrachloride’s, 2006) iii. A hiker becomes violently ill after being bitten by a rattlesnake.

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