Greater pressures on in fracture and natural resources have affected the environment in serious ways from growing population in the city. Increases in population causes in fracture to deteriorate, traffic congestion, lower air and water quality, and loss of open space. Population increase brings more vehicles that put greater emissions in the air and greater pollution problems that affect the land and water quality.
These problems are directly related to increased health problems. TO prevent greater pollution with the increase in population, higher measures of pollution control need to be implemented. Pollution Control Measures Pollution control legislation for point measures would cost an estimated 0. 3 million. The focus could be to strengthen already existing law. The emissions standards that establish annual amounts and kinds of pollutants emitted into the air and water by users of certain products have disadvantages.
Included are; allowing emissions of less than the standards free of charge, firms are restricted in the methods of compliance, and it does not take into account the differences among the firms or difference differences in region (The Economics of Pollution Controls at the Local and Global Levels, 2006). The command and control regulation that requires the use of specific pollution control devices on certain sources of pollution or apply strict emission standards to specific emitters has disadvantages.
For example, all emitters are treated the same, regardless of level of emissions, and provides no incentive for emitters to seek less expensive ways of reducing emissions or to reduce emissions more than the required amount. Fines implemented based on the amount of emissions over the required amount by varying the mounts of the fines over the required amount are a solution that could help fund the project. The more they are over the required amount, the greater the fines.
Incentives to seek less expensive measures to reduce emissions can be given discounts off the fines if proof of the measure is given at the time the payments are made. The funds from the fines can be used in the enforcement process. Random Emission Testing Random emission testing would cost approximately $0. 6 million. Vehicle air pollutants are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, particles, volatile organic compounds, and sulfur dioxide. Cherish, 2012) Two teams of transport inspectors can be placed on the roads.
The use of a 4-gas analyzer that measures levels Of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons would tell the levels of tune-ups done on vehicles and the recommended emission levels set for vehicles of different ages, taking into account of technology advances could be set for level control. By doing random emission checks on vehicles, preferable targeting smoking vehicles, it would encourage citizens to maintain their vehicles for better performance and less emission. Emissions that are over the level could fall into the legislated area of receiving a fine for trotter encouragement and help to finance this program.
Alternative Transportation Encouraging alternative transportation, such as walking, using bicycles, and carpooling would cost approximately $0. 4 million. Billboards placed at key points around the city, such as government buildings, vacant lots on busy roads, highways, and public parking lots with messages pertaining to use of alternative methods of transportation would create higher public awareness to promote a change in habits, cut personal costs, and build individual health at the same time. Public awareness is an important issue to encourage tizzies change habits, not only for personal issues, but also to reduce pollution as well.
Encouraging alternative transportation measures will reduce the amount of emissions and air pollution in the end. Greener Solutions Establishing green spaces and urban forestry will cost approximately $0. 2 million. Setting building zones that put people outside the forestry is an effort to protect the urban forest areas. Encouraging a city composting will can help recycling, replenish, and fertilize the forest areas. Building public awareness and encouraging recycling helps to preserve the lands and reduces pollution at the same time.
Designating composting areas and encouraging citizens to deliver certain table scraps, such as vegetable peelings, cardboard, paper, and other composting ingredients can bring about more natural ways to preserve forest areas. The total cost of this plan is approximately $1. 5 million. The City Council provides a budget of one million for tackling the environment issues. The funds that come from fines of the emission violations can help cover the extra cost. Once the billboards are put in place, they would only have to be replaced as they weather, which puts the majority of costs in placing them in the beginning.
Encouraging the composting would cut the fertilizer costs of the maintenance of the forest areas. Making decisions about environmental issues will bring necessary maintenance of a fine balance between the effectiveness of measures and public reaction toward them. The public reaction to the decisions will affect the effectiveness of the decisions. There has to be a balance between the pollution control measures and what the public will accept. By concentrating on strengthening present law, building public awareness, encouraging measures to reduce pollution, such as alternative transportation, the result will be less air pollution in the end.