INT1-SUM TASK 1: NUCLEAR Power PLANTS
The issue of whether the United States, every bit good as other states throughout the universe, should see constructing more atomic power workss has been up for argument for some clip. There are many concerns with the possible jeopardies of a atomic power works, every bit good as concern for the cost it takes to construct one. Harmonizing to an on-line article entitled Nuclear Now, “10 is” the sum of atomic reactors “required to bring forth electricity by atomic energy, and 100 may be required if we are to replace natural gas for place heating” in the United States ( McCarthy, 2008 ) . There are besides many safety concerns associated with maintaining and runing a atomic power works, some of which will be discussed subsequently in this paper. To better understand if farther development of atomic power is a good thought we must first discourse some basic rules of atomic power.
Nuclear power, at its nucleus, is achieved by the fission of an atom of U, let go ofing radiation, which in bends creates heat. This heat is used to turn H2O into steam which we use to make energy. Inside, a atomic power works is set up to modulate overheating. The exterior of a atomic power works is used chiefly to incorporate radiation ( the by-product of atomic energy ) .
There are many ways in which atomic power workss relates to the Earth ‘s system. We will be concentrating on three of these ways. The first is the really beginning that gives us atomic energy-the component Uranium. Most atomic energy comes from the fission of Uranium. “Uranium produces 10 million times the energy produced by the burning of an atom of C from coal” ( McCarthy, 2008 ) . Uranium is “found at low degrees in virtually all stone, dirt, and H2O. Significant concentrations of uranium occur in some substances such as phosphate stone sedimentations, and minerals such as uraninite in uranium-rich ores” ( 2009 ) . This would intend the Uranium is a portion of the basic edifice blocks that make up the Earth- stone, H2O and minerals. Since Uranium is a of course happening “element on Earth. It ‘s been around since the planet formed… ( It ) has an highly long half life ( the clip it takes for half its atoms to disintegrate ) of 4.5 billion old ages. Therefore, it ‘s still present in reasonably big quantities” ( Brain & A ; Lamb 2009 ) .
The 2nd manner in which atomic power workss relate to the Earth ‘s system is one of the chief grounds why people who support the usage of atomic power are in favour of it. The chief ground for happening an option to fossil fuel is that they release CO? , fouling the Earth ‘s ambiance. Since the “Earth ‘s ambiance is a thin envelope of gases that surrounds the solid planet” ( 2007 ) , any alterations in that ambiance, such as the addition in CO? can hold huge alterations in temperature and other factors, we now call this phenomenon Global Warming. Nuclear power workss, on the other manus, emit small to no CO? into the ambiance.
A 3rd connexion between atomic power workss and the Earth system is the issue of atomic waste disposal. Many states, including the United States, are seeking to happen the best manner to dispose of waste disposal from atomic power workss. In the 1970 ‘s, the lone reprocessing works in the U.S. was shut down. Reprocessing is the remotion of “any remnant U and the Pu that has been formed” ( McCarthy, 2008 ) . Since so the U.S. has been hive awaying the unrefined fuel rods and has non come to an understanding on what is to be done with them. So, how does this relate to the Earth? Plans for hive awaying reprocessed fuel rods involve long term storage resistance. Since the Earth is built on home bases that can switch, doing temblors, it is indispensable to pick a burial site that is non near a mistake line or where the containment unit might come in contact with land H2O.
To analyse the universe around them scientists use scientific position to do rational determinations about jobs and theories. Once a job is presented it is necessary to find if that job or theory can be tested. Harmonizing to our text Conceptual Integrated Science ( 2007 ) , “the central regulation in scientific discipline is that all hypotheses must be testable…be capable of being shown wrong” ( p.4 ) . So, how does a scientist go about proving a hypothesis? The reply is through experimentation, utilizing the Scientific Method. The Scientific Method is how all theories are tested. The first measure is to do observations related to the hypothesis. The 2nd measure is to calculate out the inquiry or job that is seeking to be answered, retrieving that the inquiry chosen demands to by something you can confute. The following measure is when an existent hypothesis is made, followed by the scientist doing his or her anticipation for the result of the experiment ( step 4 ) . The 5th measure is to prove the hypothesis by executing experiments and comparing the result of the experiment with the anticipations that were made. The concluding measure is to “draw a conclusion” by explicating “the simplest general regulation that organizes the hypothesis, predicted effects, and experimental findings” ( p.4 ) . If the intended consequences do non happen, it may be necessary for a new hypothesis to be formulated and the full procedure to be restarted. One authoritative illustration of this was Aristotle ‘s belief that heavy objects fall faster than lighter 1s. This theory was believed for a really long clip until Galileo introduced the thought of carry oning experiments to prove Aristotle ‘s theory. Once a simple trial was conducted all that was believed about Aristotle ‘s theory was disproved and a new one was created. It is of import to retrieve that Science can non be used to prove all the jobs of the world- merely the 1s that are testable.
For all non testable hypotheses, must be looked at utilizing agencies, such as through Religion, Art and the Philosophy.
McCarthy, J. ( 2008, July 20 ) . Nuclear now. Retrieved December 9, 2009 from Stanford University Web Site: hypertext transfer protocol: //www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/nuclearnow.htm
United States Environment Protection Agency. ( 2009 ) . Radiation Protection Program. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.epa.gov/radiation/radionuclides/uranium.html # wheredoes
Brain, M. & A ; Lamb, R. ( 2009, October 9 ) . How Nuclear Power Works. Retrieved December 8, 2009 from hypertext transfer protocol: //science.howstuffworks.com/nuclear-power.htm
Hewitt, P. , Lyons, S. , Suchocki, J. , Yeh, J. ( 2007 ) . Conceptual incorporate Science. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc.