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The DNA will gradually separate from the suspension and rise into the suppression layer. Describe the appearance of the DNA. 19. Take a photo as proof of your observation. 20. To remove the accumulated DNA from the tube, follow the directions for DNA spooling as below:- a. Gently insert the glass rod through the suppression layer into the lumped/accumulated DNA. B. Carefully, ;RL the rod between your fingers, winding the DNA strands onto the rod. C. Slowly remove the rod. Describe the appearance of the spooled DNA. D. Take a photo as proof of your observation.

O. Questions 1 . Which one of the following do you think will contain DNA? Explain your reasoning. Bananas; concrete; fossils; meat; metal; spinach; strawberries. 2. What effect would the SD have on the cell membranes and cold ethanol on DNA? 3. What type of enzyme would be needed to separate the DNA into smaller pieces? 4. Is the DNA extracted pure enough for further applications (I. E. PC)? 5. If you were to repeat the experiment with an equal number of red blood cells, the amount of DNA collected would either: increase / decrease / stay the same (choose one).

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These nuclease recognize specific DNA sequences in the double-stranded DNA, which is usually a four to six base pair sequence of nucleotides, and digests the DNA at these sites, resulting in the DNA becoming fragmented into various lengths. Some restriction enzymes cut cleanly through the DNA double helix while some produce uneven or sticky ends. By using the same restriction enzyme to cut DNA from different organisms, the sticky ends produced will be complementary and the DNA from the two different sources can be recombined.

In humans, no two individuals have the exact same restriction enzyme pattern in the DNA except for identical twins. Restriction enzymes are named based on a system of nomenclature where the first letters represents the genus name of the organism whereas the next two letters come from the species name. If there is a fourth letter, it stands for the strain of the organism. Finally, if there are Roman numerals, it represents whether that particular enzyme was the first or second etc. Isolated in that category. FIGURE 10. 1 Cartoon of how SCORE I recognizes the restriction site and cleaves the DNA.

The second technique used in this practical is the separation and analysis of DNA fragments. Garages gels are commonly used for this where the gels that have been prepared with a suitable nucleic acid stain in it, have wells for the samples of DNA to go into. The garages gel is covered in a suitable buffer so that the DNA is in a neutral pH solution. That way, the DNA moves one direction because of its charge. Since the phosphate groups on the skeleton of DNA are negatively charged, the whole molecule takes on the negative charge.

Hence, when the DNA is placed inside the gel and the electricity is urine on, the poles are drawing the DNA toward the positive side, where it will then move through the gel and separate according to the size of the fragments. This technique is called electrophoresis. Results are obtained with the help of UP light that is refracted by the nucleic acid stain that sticks onto the DNA fragments. In this experiment, you will be using the SCORE restriction underclass to digest a known DNA called phage lambda (X) and analyzing your sample using garages gel electrophoresis.

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