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4. Market and competition

4.1 Stakeholders

4.1.1 Internal Employees

Stockholders, employees with their households and confederates with their households benefit from the beer concern. Harmonizing to the industry estimates this subdivision and collaborating industries employs about 200 000 workers in Europe, and 600 000A is the figure of employees whoA would wish work for the brewing industry in the hereafter. Polish brewery market employs about 15 000 people, and sectors that cooperate with it have higher employment rate ( 56,2 thousand employees ) . Peoples are hired in HORECA and trade and about 186,000 of them make a life by working for the breweries. This makes 740,000 households wholly that owe their fiscal stableness to this industry. Investors

After the autumn of the communism in 1989 Polish brewery market has been dominated by the multiple foreign investors. They knew that this market has a possible, and needs money, engineering, and experience in order to be successful. At the beginning of the 90s ingestion of the beer was non transcending 30 liters per individual per twelvemonth. It was of a hapless quality and the beer ingestion civilization did non be the western world. This investing needed large money, and hence investors decided to get down the brewery concern on the Polish market from the abrasion. For illustration SABMiller has spent about 2 one million millions zloty ( PLN ) on the development of its fourA trade names, and therefore one of them, Tychy, became the largest in Europe.

Brewpole, an Australian company, was the first prima investor on the market. It created new production lines and introduced a new trade name: EB. Then it gained about 16 % of the market portions. However, subsequently on it had to unify with the Zywiec Group ( because of some of its advertizement failures ) . Finally, production graduated table and good selling were the most of import issues that must hold been considered. Large participants were taking over smaller 1s, and others were merely closed down because were non profitable.

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Foreign investors have helped the Polish brewery market by seting into it $ 1 billion – and now it is the most modern in Europe. About 80 % of the beer production is under their control. Therefore engineering development in the brewery industry has been influenced by them, and this has led to increase of the beer production between 1990-1997.

Today Polish brewery industry belongs chiefly to the planetary corporations. They knew Poles are nationalists, and hence decided to take advantage of this attitude. Tyskie, Okocim, Lech, Zywiec, Warka, Lomza and Strzelec sound Polish, and therefore are the most popular on this market in Poland. This shows that the foreign investors respect Polish tradition and decided to unite it with their corporate planetary civilization.

4.2 External

4.2.1 Customers

Beer is one of the most popular planetary merchandises. Harmonizing to the informations work forces are a huge bulk when it comes to the beer ingestion ( 65 % ) . In instance of adult females, 45 % of them does imbibe beer. 76 % of the beer drink consumers are in the age below 47, and what ‘s interesting, 35 % of people between 18-29 declare to be the loyal beer buyers and its consumers. When it comes to frequence of the consumed beer, 47 % of the consumers are between 30-65.

What ‘s surprising, there is a immense difference in the instruction of the beer consumers. Peoples with the Masters grade and overA make up merely 8 % of the beer fans. About 26 % of people with the basic instruction belong to this group, 34 % with the vocational instruction does imbibe beer, and 37 % with the secondary instruction are loyal beer consumers.

72 % of the consumers normally drinks beer at place, 21 % in saloon and the eating houses, and merely 6 % while basking the nature. They prefer light beer instead than dark. The ground for his pick lays non merely In the gustatory sensation, but besides In its healthy belongingss. Light beer strengthens our castanetss, helps contend the osteoporosis, and bone tissue disease, which leads to the multiple breaks. For the last 10 old ages Poles have been imbibing beer more than earlier. They treat beer as a replacement for vinos and vodkas. Harmonizing to the researches, 60 % of the overall one-year intoxicant ingestion goes to beer, 10 % to vodka, and merely 10 % to wine. Poles are nationalists and thereforeA about 98 % of them chooses Polish beer. But when it comes to the quality of beer and its monetary value, 45 % decidedly chooses German, Dutch or Czech merchandises. . The monetary value is normally excessively high In Poland, and therefore the consumers are forced to purchase the imported beers. However, the quality and gustatory sensation of the beer are improved every twelvemonth, and hence beer ingestion additions by a few per centum.

4.2.2 Suppliers

Brewery industry requires specific type of providers. This sector is supplied by the hop, and metal and glass packaging manufacturers. Furthermore, brewery industry focuses besides the printing works services.

Brewery industry is supplied with the hop by the foreign importers and domestic providers. More than a half of the imported hop is used in the beer production, and providers are normally Hungary and Czech Republic, from the agri-food subdivision. Breweries sign with them the hop supply contracts in order to avoid the sudden monetary value alterations of the resource on the market.

Domestic manufacturers are the 2nd group of the hop providers. They do non strongly act upon the breweries, which so do non fell threatened by them. The ground for such state of affairs is that there is a low responsibility and low monetary values that encourage the breweries to import instead than utilize the services offered by the domestic providers, which later focus merely the brewery with the best parametric quantities.

Following type of providers for the breweries are those who supply glass and/or metal bundles. There is a strong competition, and each of them attempts to do his offer more attractive for the client than the others: low monetary value, good quality, and perchance best parametric quantities. Most of the manufacturers have a really attractive offers, and therefore the breweries feel free in the pick of the offers.A

Printing works services are in the same state of affairs as glass and metal bundles providers. Because of the strong competition on this market, they try to do their offers attractive as it is possible, and therefore do the client to take them. Large breweries use chiefly the services offered by the bigger workss.

4.3 PEST analysis

Plague Analysis is a combination of parts of the environment, that are put together in order to be easy researched by the company. It considers influence of the political relations on the market, economic system, societal facets, and technological development. Brewery industry challenges increase every clip when European states start to fall in the European Union, for illustration Poland, Hungary and Czech Republic in 2004, and make up one’s mind to co-operate with the non-European states. There are many chances and restrictions which breweries have to dispute.

Governments policies which consider intoxicant gross revenues include monetary value ordinances, gross revenues restrictions ( such as age, unsober clients, clip when intoxicant can be sold, topographic point of merchandising and ingestion ) , and licence for sale. Governments try to act upon the monetary value competition by restricting the advertizements or licencing the intoxicant gross revenues. They besides increase monetary values in order to increase provinces grosss, and prevent addition of the ingestion ( and alcohol addiction jobs of the society ) , particularly among immature people. Government wants to understate the negative effects of the intoxicant ingestion, such as auto accidents or its overdose. Gross saless licencing aids command whether the intoxicant companies adhere to the gross revenues regulations and pay revenue enhancements. State monopoly is the factor which does non use to the brewery industry.

Economic and societal environments are the most favorable factors for the industry ‘s development. There are different economic systems in the states of operation, and hence there needed different attacks. However, European Union regulations are similar for all of its members: common trade policy and regulations of the export trade policy. Exchange policy is another issue to see. There are still some states that have n’t changed their currency yet ( f.ex. Poland ) . Effectss of the planetary fiscal crisis in 2009 are still felt on the currency market, and hence Polish zloty varies every day. “Labor costs are on the employer ‘s ( demand ) side of the labour market model ”. The mean hourly labor cost in 2006 in the European Union was 20,35 Euro. However, there was a 20 % addition in 2008 in Czech Republic, Russia, Bulgaria, Latvia, Poland and Lithuania. Year 2009 was economically disadvantageous for every state, but the forecast seem to be optimistic and look frontward to betterments on the market. During the last old ages rising prices has influenced GDP growing rate, and the following tabular array shows how it was altering between old ages 2006-2010.

As we can reason from this tabular array, GDP growing rate varies every twelvemonth by 0,1 % , nevertheless, it declines until the twelvemonth of the fiscal crisis in 2009, where it drastically fell down by 1 % -2 % ( -2,5 % was the lowest and the worst minute ) . Luckily GDP started to catch up on losingss rapidly in 2010, and seems to follow the statistics from twelvemonth 2006. Fiscal crisis had besides influenced the employment rate – about 34 mln people have lost their occupations in Europe, and 212 mln all over the universe. 13,4 % A of the immature and 5,2 % of the older people were among the unemployed.

Social and cultural influences in concern are different in all states. The dominant faith in the universe is Christianity – 33 % of respondents claim they do believe in God, Islam – 21 % , Atheists – 16 % , Hinduism – 14 % . The undermentioned image presents all known faiths and their followings in per centum ( out of the whole humanity ) :

Brewery industry will non happen its possible consumers among Muslims, because their faith forbids them to imbibe any sort of intoxicant.

Older coevals is normally very traditional and hence sticks to the domestic merchandises, that are proven and are largely with the tradition. Young people perceive foreign merchandises as alone and attractive, hence they have positive attitude towards invention and modernness of the foreign merchandises and services. But in order to acquire their trueness and trust brewery companies must see the cultural and lingual differences. Furthermore, society ‘s wealth influences the possible sale of the merchandise. Western states, such as France or Germany, unlike Poland, Lithuania or Estonia can afford expensive merchandises, without go againsting much their budget ( for illustration German retirees traveling for a vacations abroad ) .

Modern engineering dramas besides of import function in the production. It helps do merchandises cheaply and with a good quality. Foam of the beer is more stable, and the gustatory sensation is more altered to the consumers demands. Furthermore, engineering can be implemented in order to salvage the natural environment. Adnams, the British brewery, has invested in such a engineering, without act uponing negatively the nature and gustatory sensation of its ecological merchandise – East Green. During the brewing procedure beginning minimises CO2 emanation to zero.

4.4 Porter ‘s 5 forces

This method helps analyze the sector by researching factors that make it attractive for the current and possible investors. There are four entry barriers in the brewery industry: graduated table of economic system, no entree to the distribution channel, deficiency of the capital, distinction of merchandises, and the province policy. Technology used by the brewery companies and their developed production let them bring forth at the lowest unit costs. However, company which decides to come in the market can non bring forth at a unit cost that is lower than the market monetary value. Following job company must dispute is deficiency of the distribution channels. Market belongs to the brewery corporations, and therefore the new rival has look for the other distributers. More over, it has besides to put in the beer bring forthing engineering, for the selling and publicity, market research, and acquisition of the natural stuff. What ‘s more, authorities policy counters by the societal drunkenness ( anti intoxicant statute law ) , hence alcohol gross revenues are impeded. Last barrier is the merchandise distinction. Some trade names, such as Heineken or Lomza have achieved high places on the brewery market, and therefore the new competition may hold jobs with deriving trust and trueness of its mark group.

Dickering power of providers in the beer market has been strongly influenced by the cut down of the aluminum costs control, and hence this has led to the addition of the packaging stuffs costs. In order to avoid being dependent on these stuffs some breweries started to run recycling programmes.

Brewery mark group are the beer consumers. They choose whether they want to purchase the merchandise or non, and hence influence gross revenues of the company. Thus breweries attention about the quality of their merchandises, packaging, add some appliances, and see the manner the merchandise is served to the client. He has a broad scope of beers to take and is given an information about each of them. Therefore he can take the trade name that largely fits his gustatory sensation. The operation of the company depends mostly on his beer pick.

There are no replacements for the beer, because there are no replacements for hop. Brewery industry is really specific, because new merchandises from this country are seldom launched to the market. However, they do n’t act upon the beers ingestion. Even non-alcohol beers have n’t increased its volume gross revenues.

Competition within the brewery industry is really active. Success of the brewery companies depend on the good advertizement, economic systems of graduated table benefits, costs minimization and attractive packaging. Leaderships on the planetary beer market are Heineken and Carlsberg. Smaller breweries try to make their place and claim to hold 40 % addition in gross revenues, and hence bigger corporation attempt to salvage their place by comparing their successes to the weaker competition. Smaller participants on the market increase their portions by selling the low quality merchandises, and therefore promote possible investor to take over the brewery. Breweries try to make their clients by selling them cheaper merchandises. Customer looking at the low monetary value resigns from the quality. Middle breweries dominate the sections with the low monetary value merchandises. Bigger corporations promote their trade names by puting large capital in the selling and publicity runs. Smaller companies ca n’t afford such a large investing, and therefore they merely promote and actuate their salesmen to be more effectual.

4.5 SWOT analysis

Brewery industry is one of the most underdeveloped industries in the universe. Its internal ( strengths, failings ) and external ( chances, menaces ) factors can be audited by utilizing the strategic environment analysis called SWOT analysis. It is presented below:

All these factors relate separately to each of the companies runing in the brewery industry. Strengths shown in the tabular array are their resources and capablenesss that are used in order to develop their competitory advantage on the market ( Garbarski et al, 2000 ) . There will be ever a high demand for beer, and developed engineering will be the background for the merchandises betterment and doing it more attractive for the clients. This creates a relationship between both, merchandise and its consumer.

Strengths prevail over the failings, nevertheless they strongly influence the market operations of the companies. High advertisement costs are a chief fiscal load for the smaller and medium participants. Furthermore, because of the low budget they have to cover with the narrow merchandise line, and therefore the weak and slow distribution. However, If the industry considers its chances that appear during the analysis of the environment, it may detect some growing and bring forth more net incomes. Demographic addition and smaller scope of age for imbibing intoxicant aid make a wider scope of clients. However, revenue enhancement additions, altering clients gustatory sensations, or anti-alcohol runs may endanger actions taken to better the fiscal state of affairs within the industry.

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