Chow ( 2001 ) stated that filial piousness is defined in conformity with the instruction of Confucius in that kids should handle their parents with fear and obeisance.
The pattern of filial piousness is divided into three degrees. The first degree includes supplying parents with the necessary stuffs for the satisfaction of their physical demands and amenitiess, including go toing to them when they are sick. The 2nd degree includes paying attending to parents ‘ wants and obeying their penchants. The 3rd degree includes acting in such a manner as to do parents happy and to being them award and the regard of the community.Chow ( 1998 ) conducted a survey on how Hong Kong people really practiced filial piousness, integrating the three degree of tradition Confucian instruction, which shown 82 % of the respondents said that they regularly gave money to their parents, irrespective of whether their parents needed fiscal support. 69.
7 % said that they were prepared in proviso of fiscal aid for their parents to retrieve from their unwellness. However, less than a 3rd of the respondents thought that they would follow the advice of their parents in determinations like looking for a occupation ; some did non even believe it is necessary to seek advice from their parents. Though about half of the respondents said that they would seek to do their parents happy and non to convey them shame, filial piousness could non be regard as a primary motivation factor or usher to decision-making.
The pattern of filial piousness in Hong Kong is now chiefly confined to the first degree: satisfaction of parents ‘ physical demands and amenitiess.Chow and Lum ( 2008 ) conducted another survey on how the attitude of Hong Kong people towards filial piousness and found that their support is assorted. Sixty per centum of the study respondents agreed that household shame should be maintain within the household. Fifty-nine per centum agreed that one should work hard to travel up in order to convey award to the household. Seventy-three per centum agreed that kids should confer with their parents before major determination. However, merely 36 per centum agreed that one should seek aid from seniors to settle struggle. Merely 39 per centum agreed that it is of import to hold a boy to go on the household name. Seventy two per centum of respondents disagreed that it is better to hold a boy than to hold a girl.
It besides noticed that Age, gender, and socioeconomic position are related to attitude towards filial piousness. In general, support towards filial piousness had a “ U ” form relationship across age groups. For illustration, compared with younger grownups ( of 29 old ages of age or younger ) , in-between age grownups ( of 40 to 49 old ages of age ) were less likely to hold that it is of import to work hard to convey award to the household. However, older grownups ( of 60 old ages of age or older ) were more likely to hold with it. Similarly, compared with younger grownups, in-between age grownups were less likely to hold seeking aid from senior ‘s to settle struggle and holding a boy to go on household name while older grownups were more likely to hold to these attitudes. Female respondents and those who received more instruction were less likely to hold to the filial piousness value.
Respondents who had higher income were less likely to hold the importance of working difficult to convey award to the household, of seeking senior ‘s aid to settle struggle, and of holding a boy to go on household name.Furthermore, rapid industrialisation has contributed to altering household values in relation to attention of aged members and adult females are now less likely to follow this traditional function due to their increasing labour engagement rates, lovingness of the aged is progressively seen as a shared duty of households and authorities. What we can state is that the value of filial piousness is non wholly forgotten presently in Hong Kong but upheld by most Hong Kong people as a value that they should prize and pattern in the ways that they believe suited and appropriate. It is anticipated that the demand for aged attention, particularly the demand of institutional attention, will quickly increase as the ageing population of Hong Kong.On the other manus, troubles encountered in supplying aged attention are:1. Hong Kong ‘s ageing populationSimilar to many Asiatic communities, Hong Kong ‘s population has been ageing throughout the 1980s and 1990s.
The proportion of its population aged 65 or above increased from 6.6 % in 1981 to 11.2 % in 2001 and the entire figure of seniors so defined increased from 344,300 to 753,600. It will get down turning 65 in 2011 and by 2031, 24.3 % of our population will be aged 65 and supra.2. Lack of residential attention for the frail seniorsIn a community broad study conducted in the late 1990s, Hong Kong ‘s aged population was found really healthy. Very similar to aged population in other advanced economic systems, merely approximately 5 % of our seniors were of different grades of physical or mental damages so as to necessitate aid with their activities of day-to-day life.
The great bulk of those with terrible physical or mental damages were populating in residential attention places, either subvented or private. However, a good proportion of those with mild or moderate damages were populating in the community. Traditionally Hong Kong was really similar to other Chinese communities world-wide in relation to who took attention of the frail elderly. The household provided the support. In the community-wide study conducted in the late 1990s, partner was the figure one carer for frail seniors, followed by girls and daughters-in-laws. That is, female grownups are the chief informal carers for frail seniors. The study findings were no surprise, and even without comparative informations ready in manus, the state of affairs in Hong Kong must be really similar to that in other Chinese communities, and so many Asiatic communities. Underliing the basic state of affairs uncovered by the 1997 study, there has been nevertheless an increasing tendency of frail seniors being sent to residential attention establishments in the past 20 old ages.
As big figure of Hong Kong people migrated overseas throughout the 1980s and 1990s, there was an increasing demand to set frail seniors in residential attention. Although the Government was endlessly increasing its support for subvented residential attention throughout the 1990s, the waiting list for the service continued to lengthen in that decennary and so was the waiting clip. In 1997, there were a sum of 17,000 subvented residential attention topographic points in Hong Kong, but 19,000 people were on the waiting list.3. Confusion on ageing policy of the GovernmentIt is an issue of argument whether a policy on ageing presently exists or has of all time existed in Hong Kong. If “ policy ” is taken to intend a consistent conceptual model associating different patterns for the accomplishment of a end or mission, the gradual development of such a policy model has been apparent since the 1970s, but services provided have non ever been consistent with the policy.
However, if “ policy ” is taken more by and large and pragmatically to connote a cardinal authorities attempt towards collating public services, so there has been merely a way for explicating such policy. Today ‘s policy on ageing in Hong Kong represents a bit-by-bit development over 30 old ages. Policy over the past decennary has decidedly become more consistent and considered. Whilst policy is doubtless emerging, many issues remain to be tackled in footings of the wellness and societal demands of older individuals. The Hong Kong authorities is besides traveling through a learning procedure in trying to run into these demands through policy preparation and execution. Policy imperatives to be addressed include the demand for informations for policy-making and rating, the hapless integrating within and between wellness and societal services suppliers, which has resulted in a disconnected bringing of services, and the deficiency of clear operational or policy execution programs for service bringing.
Some policy and service enterprises are being taken to turn to these challenges, particularly in position of the projected rapid addition in the aged population. The Hong Kong Government has tried to establish the development of aged attention on the rule of “ ageing in topographic point ” – that is, aged people should populate with their households or in a familiar environment for every bit long as possible. This rule has been efficaciously underpinned Hong Kong ‘s societal public assistance policy since 1977, reasserted in the 1991 White Paper and in many policy statements since so. Whilst Chinese tradition besides assumes the preparedness of the household to care, the fact that more households unable or unwilling to make so, coupled with many more aged individuals themselves inquiring for residential attention, has made the sedate deficit in place topographic points become apparent. The authorities has responded to such demands by constructing different types of residential places. However, recent reappraisals on aged attention proviso indicate that there is a demand to promote realistic community attention and support, and to revamp residential attention. A greater accent is being put on the function of community support services in keeping older individuals in the community.
At the same clip, residential attention types are progressively considered in footings of fiting occupants ‘ degrees of dependence, ensuing in the outgrowth of a more refined system of demand appraisal and incorporate service bringing.Finally, how those troubles could be resolved or minimized?Strategic policy by Government of Hong KongThe Government of Hong Kong should organize a designated commission consisting multi-disciplinary members from the medical, societal public assistance, academic, rehabilitation, and concern sectors which a clear policy and services for aged attention would be formulated consequently. The commission should besides supply a tip to the surveies into assorted facets of the state of affairs in relation to aged attention and put up assorted sub-committees with a position to passing the bing services and doing recommendations for betterment in Hong Kong.
The Government of Hong Kong was asked to increase the supply of quality long term attention service for the frail elderly. For illustration, the entire supply of subsidised residential attention beds should be increased harmonizing to the existent demand. Despite the willingness of the Hong Kong Government to perpetrate extra resources to the Strategic Policy Objective of attention for the aged, the Committee has ever been cognizant of the high cost of long term attention services.
For illustration, each bed of a attention and attending place costs more than HK $ 100,000 a twelvemonth to run. Merely 20 % of the cost is covered by users ‘ fees, whereas 80 % is subsidized in the signifier of subvention paid to the public assistance bureaus runing the residential attention places. Furthermore, some two-thirds of the occupants are welfare receivers and hence even their users ‘ fee is covered by public assistance benefits collectible to them. That is, over 90 % of the cost of the subvented residential attention programme is paid for by public subsidized money. The unit cost for nursing place beds is even higher. At a cost of $ 150,000 a twelvemonth to run, users ‘ fee is merely comparable to that of attention and attending places.
Therefore, 95 % of the cost of nursing places is paid for by public subsidy. Under such support agreement, any effort to increase the supply of long term attention services is really expensive to the taxpayers. The Committee might follow a scheme of aiming and re-engineering to stretch the buying power of the revenue enhancement dollars. The undermentioned enterprises should be taken in this regard:( a ) Purchase of service from the private sector, alternatively of constructing new subvented residential attention places ; the Government has to make up one’s mind for purchase residential attention beds from bing private residential attention places if they are able to fulfill enhanced criterions of attention. In add-on, those private residential attention places must upgrade their infinite and attention criterions to those higher than the minimal statutory criterions. To obtain maximal good effects, the full private residential attention places must accomplish the “ Bought Place Scheme ” criterions, although typically the Government will buy 20 % – 50 % of the beds in a private residential attention places. The monthly cost of purchase per bed is about 30 % cheaper than that of subvented residential attention places because private attention places can follow market rewards in their employment of nurses, caretakers and other indispensable staff.
Furthermore, the Government can accomplish nest eggs in capital outgo which is normally really ample in Hong Kong given the high building cost in Hong Kong.( B ) Encouragement of self-financing services – traditionally there is no income standards curtailing entree to subvented residential attention beds. The state of affairs was considered acceptable as in the past rich households were by and large non inclined to direct their aged parents to residential attention places to avoid the societal stigma attached to such behavior. Nevertheless, altering societal and economic conditions in Hong Kong have made it socially acceptable for in-between category households to direct their aged parents to underwrite residential attention places. Actually, both the hubby and married woman in many in-between category households are working full clip, doing it hard to care for a frail senior at place.
Many who are willing find themselves missing the appropriate attention accomplishments and happen it of common benefit to the seniors and their grownup kids to seek professional attention services. As private residential attention places by and large offer services of lower criterions, in-between category households have no pick but to direct their aged parents to underwrite residential attention places to bask a higher criterion of attention. To tap the buying power of these in-between category households, the Government has made greater attempts to promote the 3rd sector to run self-financing attention places, instead than concentrating their attempts in operating subvented attention places. Indeed the demand for self-financing places has been so high they are all to the full occupied. Those situated at better locations command really high monetary values per bed and are ever full. As a affair of fact, many of these self-financing places really achieve “ excess ” in their histories that can be used to cross-subsidize the organisation ‘s other public assistance activities.
At present, some 3,000 frail seniors are having residential attention in self-financing residential attention places.( degree Celsius ) Gate-keeping – to undertake the job of some aged people seeing residential attention places as a lodging option and use for admittance even though they are in good wellness conditions, there is a demand to carry on an appraisal on the attention needs of the aged and to aim the long term attention services at those truly in demand. For such intent, an luxuriant gate maintaining mechanism was so needed, following the internationally accepted but locally validated MDS attention appraisal tool. The attention appraisal has been successful in guaranting that merely frail seniors with long term attention demands are admitted and has shown that some 20 – 30 % of appliers do non hold the attention needs to quality for services.( vitamin D ) Services re-engineering – the Hong Kong Government has been promoting the service supplier to re-engineer their services in these facets.
For resources antecedently devoted to proviso of services to healthy aged people are re-oriented to supply attention services to the frail seniors. For illustration, societal centres for the seniors which are designed to supply recreational programmes and societal support for the seniors are given extra resources to use nursing and therapist staff if they are to re-focus their services to supply support services to the frail seniors. These centres are besides encouraged to work with place aid or place attention squads to supply a community web of attention services for frail seniors ageing at place.( vitamin E ) Home attention services as an option to residential attention service – capitalizing on some households ‘ disposition to care for their aged members at place if support services are available, the Hong Kong Government has to present place and community attention bundles to frail seniors who are otherwise eligible for admittance to residential attention places. The cost of attention in such agreement is on mean 80 % cheaper than residential attention.( degree Fahrenheit ) Product distinction – to cut down the trust on public subvention in the proviso of residential attention, new subvented places are required to supply a proportion of their beds as fee-collection beds.
To promote payment of fees, some beds are accommodated in suites of a higher criterion of ornaments and improved privateness. In so making, some beds are charged a fee that recovers the full cost of proviso, whilst some others can cut down the grade of subsidy to state 50 % or less. The entire sum of subvention collectible to such places is lower than otherwise by some per centum.( g ) Optimization of usage of resources – to do best usage of the staffing and other resources, attention establishments are encouraged to supply other types of attention services with their trim capacity.
For illustration, since all residential attention places have vacant beds because of turnover of occupants and short term admittance to infirmary for ague attention, they are encouraged to supply twenty-four hours and nightlong reprieve services without extra subvention from the Government.In decision, I would state it is an officeholder for us to see that this virtuousness of filial piousness does propagate and thrive, and is elevated to the self-respect of a witting societal pattern. Shall we reap get to the full the calm cloud nine and hilarity of this virtuousness, enjoy the delectation and joyousness into pattern, arouse a multiplier consequence through common encouragement and support, avoid bloopers by sharing and larning from others ‘ experience, and most significantly, preclude the skip of proper Acts of the Apostless in due class, so recognizing the skip subsequently which immersing into womb-to-tomb compunction.