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Give the definitions for the following words (the glossary at the back of the book may help you: a. Habitat – living place Of an organism b. Adaptations – characteristics of an organism that helps it to survive and reproduce in their environment c. Biota – combined flora and fauna of a region d. Biosphere – the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the earth or another planet occupied by living organisms e. Biomass – areas of the Earth linked by a common feature 3. How do structural, behavioral and physiological adaptations differ from each other?

Give an example of each. Structural adaptation is the physical feature of an organism, an example is the fur and hair of an organism. Behavioral is the way an organism acts, an example is hibernation. Physiological is how the body of an organism works an example is sweat production and dormancy. Environmental Factors 4. What is the difference between biotic and biotic factors? Give four examples of each. Biotic is non-living factors and biotic is living factors that affects an organism.

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Examples of biotic factors are weather, water, shelter, humidity and examples of Biotic factors are predators, prey, parasites, pathogens etc. 5. What is the difference between the tolerance range and the optimum anger for biotic factors (Figure 7. 1 may help)? Tolerance range is the outer limits in which the organism feels comfortable and optimum range is where the best conditions are. 6. When does an organism suffer physiological stress? Give an example? An organism suffer physiological stress when it is taken out of their comfort zone. 7.

Complete the table below : Organism Most important Biotic factors affecting the organism (four) Most important Biotic factors affecting the organism (four) Sea anemone in a rock pool Temperature, oxygen, nutrient, shelter. Prey, predators, fungi, bacteria Tree in a paddock Soil, space, water, oxygen. Competitor, humans, herbivores, diseases Insect Larva in the soil Soil, air, temperature, nutrients. Competitor, disease, food. 8. Fish living in estuaries(where a river mouth meets the ocean) have a wide tolerance range for salinity (salt). Why is this so?

Because in a river mouth it is more saline and the fish living in that environment has to cope with the salinity in order to survive. 9. Why is it an advantage for a migratory eel to have a wide tolerance range for temperature? Because it Is a migrating eel which migrates from one place to another. In order to survive it has to cope with the temperature of every environment. Geographic Distribution 10. Describe the relationship between the tolerance limits of organisms and their distribution. Effectively the more an organism can tolerate, the wider its geographical range can be.

The distribution of an organism depends on where resources are available and if it can obtain its needs, which would be limited for extended in range depending on the tolerance range. 1 1 . The physical environment determines the distribution and abundance of plants. Explain. If the physical environment in which plant species lives good intuitions that meet plants needs and provides suitable resources, there can be an abundance if plants, through the specific species will still be dependent on the specific conditions of the environment. 2. Explain what is meant by a limiting factor. Give an example. A limiting factor is simply a circumstances that limits the distribution of the organism. For example, Leaseholder’s grasshoppers exist in small populations and are totally dependent on the resinous bush Putridity, their only food source. The limited area of availability of this food in turn also limits the places where this organisms can exist or habitat.

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