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This book examines Carl Gustav Jung’s ( 1875-1961 ) theory of synchronism and discusses the job of philosophical beginnings and Yijing ( the Book of Changes ) that he brings to back up his synchronistic rule. By manner of the impression of synchronism. Jung presents the significance of some human experience as unaccountable within the frame of scientific reason and causality based on logical consistence. Jung asserts that in the phenomenon of synchronism is a meaningful analogue between an outer event and an interior psychic state of affairs causally unrelated to each other.

Jung’s impression of synchronism is a condensed signifier of his archetypical psychological science. in which the preconceived form or the unconsciousness of the human mind manifests itself. The synchronous event is a phenomenon developed in the unconscious deepness of the head. which is paradoxically made evident within the bound of the witting head. Jung theorizes that these equivocal contents of the unconscious are hard to be grasped in the witting head. because they can non be verified merely as true or false.

For the theory of synchronism. Jung seeks to verify that self-contradictory propositions can be both true and false or neither true nor false in a complementary relation between the antonyms of the witting and the unconscious. Jung argues that synchronistic phenomena are non the issue of true or false performed by the logical certainty of witting activity but instead are events formed in the procedure of the unconscious in response to ego-consciousness.

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In order to analyze the cogency of his rule of synchronism. Jung entreaties to the philosophical systems of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz ( 16461716 ) . Immanuel Kant ( 1742-1804 ) . and Arthur Schopenhauer ( 17881860 ) . For Jung. these philosophical beginnings of synchronism support his unfavorable judgment of the absolute cogency of scientific reason in which all obscure and self-contradictory statements are eliminated in logical logical thinking. and they clearly indicate the restriction of human cognition based on scientific causality and logical logical thinking.

In contrast to the NewtonianCartesian mechanical theoretical account. which pursues the absolute cognition of nonsubjective world by manner of which the subject-object and the mind-body duality is formed. Jung’s theoretical account of synchronism postulates an interrelatedness between these contrasting poles. eight Introduction However. it is of import to indicate out that in his development of his synchronistic rule. Jung adapts his reading beginnings periodically so that some of his statements become Procrustean. In Kant’s critical doctrine above all does Jung’s philosophical beginning for prolonging his archetypical psychological science and synchronism culminate.

Jung advocators for the spaceless and timeless outside human ground and centripetal perceptual experience. as described in Kantian epistemology. as a beginning for the theory of synchronism. Kant draws the boundary line for the bounds of human ground within infinite and clip and develops the impression of the noumenon as the spaceless and dateless beyond human cognition. the thing-in-itself. He solves the jobs of any antinomy or paradox emerging in human perceptual experience and experience in phenomenon by returning to the logical of Aristotle ( 384-322 BCE ) . in which antithetical propositions are demarcated by the contrast of true and false.

Although Kant’s impression of thing-in-itself can back up the rule of synchronism. which is non grasped in sensate empirical informations. Kant focuses on the bounds of human cognition and experience. so that he constructs no proposition about thing-in-itself. In this manner Kant’s thing-in-itself distinguishes itself from Jung’s rule of synchronism constructed by the balance of self-contradictory elements. For Jung. the issue of the empirical phenomenal universe is the chief factor for his analytical psychological science based on experiential informations and facts.

It is in his culling of incompatible positions from his philosophical beginnings for back uping his theory of synchronism that Jung has trouble in keeping a consistent significance of the phenomenon of synchronism. I examine Jung’s method of cogency and his doctrine of scientific discipline. which bring other philosophical and psychological constructs to back up his rule of synchronism. peculiarly Plato’s ( 427-347 BCE ) thought of signifier. Leibniz’s monadology. Kant’s noumenon. Schopenhauer’s impression of will. Sigmund Freud’s ( 1856-1939 ) dream reading. and Wolfgang Pauli’s ( 1900-1958 ) theory of modern natural philosophies.

I explore how those reading beginnings verify Jung’s synchronistic rule and besides indicate out their differences from Jung’s treatment of synchronism. The intent of mentioning the similarities and differences between Jung’s synchronism and his reading beginnings is to clear up how Jung attempts to put his typical claim for synchronism signifier his partial version. Jung’s synchronistic rule can be understood within a dynamic construction of clip. which includes the yesteryear. the present. and the hereafter.

Given this position of clip. Edmund Husserl’s ( 1859-1938 ) phenomenological method of time-consciousness becomes a key for understanding the clip construction of Jung’s synchronism. Jung’s position of clip that is developed in the synchronistic rule can be clarified by manner of phenomenological Jung on Synchronicity and Yijing: A Critical Approach nine time-consciousness. which is non the issue of time-in-itself but that of “lived experiences of clip. ” Husserl opposes the Manichaean differentiation between the phenomenon and noumenon.

To set it another manner. he rejects the Kantian boundary of human cognition by which 1 does non go on to pattern one’s knowing activity to the given object but ascribes the object itself to the unknowable. For Husserl. all that is meaningful can be cognizable to our intuition. The duality of thing-initself and thing-as-it-appears ( noumenon-phenomenon ) is an illicit grant to Manichaean metaphysics. In other words. noumenon can ensue from the activity of human inventive intuition in Husserl’s phenomenology.

The ground for opposing such dualism is closely related to the perceptive manner in the phenomenological method in which the nowadays is non the atomic nowadays but the present draws on the yesteryear and the hereafter. This incorporate whole of clip does non match to the timeless in the position of noumenon. Unlike Kant’s manner based on the positivist tradition in the subject-object differentiation. Husserl’s phenomenology. based on experience and intuition in the continuance of clip. can join forces with Jung’s position of clip.

The synchronistic minute that Jung nowadayss is the phenomenon ever involved in subjective experience and intuition. which are developed in the continuance of clip. The synchronistic phenomenon is non surpassing or the nonsubjective flowing of time-in-itself regardless of our subjective experience. Finally. I examine Jung’s treatment of Yijing. one of the primary classics in the Chinese traditions. for his theory of synchronism. I discuss the differentiation between the two by indicating out the position of Yijing uncovered from Jung’s partial apprehension.

Then I explore how the organic theoretical account of Yijing can supplement Jung’s theory of the synchronistic relation between the mind and the physical event by looking to the procedure of alteration in the development of clip. Through his reading of Yijing. I besides discuss Jung’s impression of the Godhead developed in the synchronistic rule. Jung regards the images of yin-yang interaction developed in the text of Yijing as the clear original and the symbolic linguistic communication of Yijing as driven from the originals of the unconscious.

Yijing specifies the phenomena of alterations that our ego-consciousness can non hold on. In this manner. within the text of Yijing is the rule of synchronism by manner of archetypical representation. which is anterior to ego-consciousness. By concentrating on a method of oracularity. Jung maintains that the hexagrams of yin and yang attained by the odd and even Numberss formed by spliting the ten Introduction 49 milfoil chaffs or throwing three coins down together expose the synchronistic relation between the participant’s psychic universe and the physical universe.

This method of Yijing is conducted by emptying the egoconsciousness and pulling upon the dimension of the unconscious via archetypical representation. An brush with a wider skyline of the head can be explained as the procedure of self-education in the East Asiatic tradition. Jung articulates this procedure as the procedure of individualization. or self-fulfillment through the realisation of a balance between the witting and the unconscious. Harmonizing to Jung. the phenomenon of synchronism refers to the close connexion between the archetypical vision of the unconscious and the physical event.

Such a connexion is non simple opportunity but instead is a meaningful happenstance. In peculiar. Jung’s psychological reading of the Godhead clarifies the spiritual significance of the relationship between the human head and the supreme ultimate developed in the Yijing context. Jung examines the human experience of God in the inseparable relation between the Godhead and the human unconscious. Jung’s treatment of the Godhead is developed by analyzing the archetypical procedure of the unconscious shown in the experience of synchronism.

The human experience of God. as an unconscious compensation in response to ego-consciousness. is the spiritual and theological motive that Jung brings into his treatment of synchronism and original. That is. Jung’s impression of the spiritual ego is derived from the experience of self-transformation. which is performed through the archetypical representation of the Godhead. In this sense Godhead nature is ever known and constructed in-and-through the human head. From Jung’s position. God is God-within-the-human head.

Yet. Jung’s statement refering God is different from the thought that God is the consequence of single psychic phenomenon. Jung relates God to his impression of the corporate unconscious of the human head. which is beyond the personal dimension of the head. Jung defines the Godhead character in relation to the universal and corporate dimension of the human head. The definition of the Supreme Ultimate in the Yijing tradition has been frequently identified with non-religious signifier in the absence of godly character and surpassing world.

However. the construct of the Supreme Ultimate can non be attributed merely to the non-religious tradition in footings of Jung’s reading of God experienced through the human head of the unconscious. Harmonizing to Jung the image of God through the unconscious represents the integrity embracing the contrasting poles of good and immoralities in their compensatory relationship. This can be an analogical theoretical account for developing the Godhead and spiritual image of the Jung on Synchronicity and Yijing: A Critical Approach eleven

Supreme Ultimate in the Yijing tradition. which represents the balance of the antonyms through the yin-yang synergistic procedure. Yet. it is in his culling of incompatible positions from his beginnings for back uping the theory of synchronism that Jung has trouble in keeping a consistent significance of the phenomenon of synchronism. Jung’s construct of original as the a priori signifier of the human head. which is the footing of synchronism. shows a clear differentiation from the cardinal subject of Yijing as the rule of alteration and creativeness in clip and the empirical universe.

This differentiation good represents the differentiation between Jung in the Platonic and Kantian Western tradition and Yijing in the East Asiatic tradition in which ultimate rule is constructed in the dynamic procedure of the empirical universe instead than the a priori. In this sense Jung’s points of position about Yijing are formed through his theory of synchronism instead than through existent use of or an submergence into the Yijing cultural system.

Jung’s application of Yijing into his statement of the timeless with his impression of archetype exhibits a theory-laden observation. This observation articulates his difference from the Yijing tradition based on the rule of alteration that posits great value to the time-factor of the phenomenal universe. Jung’s phenomenon of synchronism ascribed to the representation of the original as a priori signifier can be seen as reductive in footings of Yijing. which posits the beginnings of assorted empirical informations in the concrete phenomenon of alteration in the universe.

Besides. Jung’s account of original itself has trouble. consistent with his partial application of Kantian thing-in-itself. While Jung argues the original as a priori signifier unknown to the empirical universe. he besides brings it into the synchronistic event. which Jung respects as an empirical phenomenon. In this respect the relation between ultimate rule and the empirical universe developed in the Yijing tradition can escalate Jung’s effort to pull the form of the original into the phenomenal universe.

To set it another manner. ultimate rule or form formed in the interaction of human head and nature in Yijing can go a theoretical account for the meaningful relation between the head and nature that Jung argues in phenomena of synchronism. Given this theoretical account of Yijing. Jung’s a-causal connecting rule and archetypical representation can be understood in a form constructed within the rule of alteration and creativeness in the dynamic construction of clip instead than from the point of position of a surpassing absolute signifier of cognition beyond human experience.

Chapter ONE JUNG’S ARCHETYPAL STRUCTURE OF THE PSYCHE AND THE PRINCIPLE OF SYNCHRONICITY In this chapter I introduce the rule of synchronism in relation to the impression of the corporate unconscious and explicate how Jung identifies the synchronistic phenomena with an unconscious procedure of the human head. The Collective Unconscious. Instinct and Archetype. and Archetypal Images for the Theory of Synchronicity Jung’s undertaking on synchronism as a meaningful happenstance day of the months from 1925 to 1939 during which he opened a series of seminars at the Psychological Club in Zurich.

1 It is from this period that his theory of synchronism becomes a major portion of his analytical psychological science. even though he merely foremost publishes his essay On Synchronicity in 1951 and so revises it in 1952 with the name Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle. With the impression of synchronism. Jung attempts to demo the archetypical procedure of the human mind. which is driven from the a-priori signifier or aboriginal image profoundly rooted in human unconsciousness. Jung argues that the deepness of the mind is closely associated with an outer event through the synchronistic minute.

He maintains the following in his essay on Synchronism: If. hence. we entertain the hypothesis that one and the same ( nonnatural ) significance might attest itself at the same time in the human mind and in the agreement of an external and independent event. we at one time come into struggle with the convention of all scientific and epistemic positions. . . . Synchronicity postulates a significance which is a priori in relation to human consciousness and seemingly exists outside adult male. 2 2

Chapter One Jung focuses on the non-causal dimension of the human experience irreducible to the cause-effect system of head and nature. Jung argues that the correspondence of the interior mind to the outer event is performed by the archetypical representation derived from the corporate unconscious. which is beyond the single ego. Therefore. the synchronistic phenomenon can non be decently described by the causal relation between head and nature harmonizing to traditionally-Western logical logical thinking.

Jung’s impression of synchronism is based on the constructs of corporate unconsciousness. which is composed of inherent aptitude and original and the archetypical image ; these elements are correlate with one another for the whole strategy of his psychological science. Harmonizing to Jung. corporate unconsciousness refers to the deepest bed of the human mind. It is given by birth and greatly influences one’s mind in assorted ways without being recognized by one’s consciousness. Jung distinguishes this corporate country of the unconscious from the personal dimension of the unconscious.

The former. the “collective unconscious. ” is shaped a priori and reveals cosmopolitan phenomena throughout all world beyond clip and infinite. The latter. based on peculiar experiences of persons. refers to a subdued province of the personal mind ( or memories ) . which have disappeared from ego-consciousness by being repressed and forgotten. Jung calls this “the personal unconscious. ”3 Although “collective” and “personal” are easy distinguished in their definitions. those two words convey a composite of significances in depicting the unconscious facets of human experience.

The impression of “the unconscious” indicates an vague phenomenon non grasped in any witting cognition. so that it is really hard to be described in a lingual mode. In other words. whether the unconscious is the personal or the collective is non clearly distinguishable in our psychic experience. From this significance construction of the unconscious. Jung presents the construct of corporate unconscious in an effort to separate himself from Sigmund Freud and to set up his ain psychological system. Jung writes the following about Freud’s description of

the unconscious: In Freud’s position. as most people know. the contents of the unconscious are reducible to infantile inclinations which are repressed because of their incompatible character. Repression is a procedure that begins in early childhood under the moral influence of the environment and continues throughout life. By agencies of analysis the repressions are removed and the pent-up wants made witting. 4 Jung’s Archetypal Structure of the Psyche and the Principle of Synchronicity 3 Thus does Jung see Freud’s impression of the unconscious including the procedure of repression by the ego-consciousness.

In a struggle between one’s situational restriction and childish wants. the pent-up psychic contents remain unconscious. a state of affairs which can besides convey away assorted types of symptoms and neuroticisms in the procedure of one’s wishfulfillment. By sing this Freudian impression of the unconscious as lone portion of what makes up the unconscious. Jung seeks to widen its significance: Harmonizing to this [ Freud’s ] theory. the unconscious contains merely those parts of the personality which could merely every bit good be witting. and have been suppressed merely through the procedure of instruction.

Although from one point of position the childish inclinations of the unconscious are the most conspicuous. it would however be a error to specify or measure the unconscious wholly in these footings. The unconscious has still another side to it: it includes non merely pent-up contents. but all psychic stuff that lies below the threshold of consciousness. 5 Jung turns around the relation between the witting and the unconscious through his unfavorable judgment of Freud. He maintains that the kingdom of the unconscious does non arise in the sedimentation repressed from the witting but instead the witting sprouts from the unconscious.

Of class. this turning point does non propose Jung’s overall denial of Freud’s impression of the unconscious. Jung is greatly influenced by Freud’s psychoanalytical method and develops his major psychological constructs within the context of his treatment about Freud. who elaborated the correlativity between egoconsciousness and unconsciousness in a scientific mode. Jung affirms and progresss Freud’s thought that the unconscious emerges in person’s phantasy. oversight of memory. neuroticism. and symptoms. the looks of which besides appear in the person’s dreams.

Yet. Jung’s dissatisfaction with Freud’s method occurs at the point where Freud reduces all the beginnings of the unconscious to the contents of the childish want repressed from the witting and focal points on those contents in footings of the instinctual thrust. It is from this unfavorable judgment that Jung posits the presence of the unconscious that encompasses the deeper degree of the human mind. which Jung calls the corporate unconscious. The psychic contents of the corporate unconscious are based upon non-sensory perceptual experiences.

Jung’s corporate unconsciousness includes antediluvian traces inherited from hereditary experiences and therefore straight unknown to the percipient’s experience. Jung differentiates the collective from the personal unconscious as follows: 4 Chapter One The corporate unconscious is a portion of the mind which can be negatively distinguished from a personal unconscious by the fact that it does non. like the latter. owe its being to personal experience and accordingly is non a personal acquisition.

While the personal unconscious is made up basically of contents which have at one clip been witting but which have disappeared from consciousness through holding been forgotten or repressed. the contents of the corporate unconscious have ne’er been in consciousness. and hence have ne’er been separately acquired. but owe their being entirely to heredity. 6 Jung’s geographic expedition of the psychical dimension outside the phenomenal universe limited in clip and infinite is based on his premise of the corporate unconscious. Harmonizing to Jung. the range of consciousness is narrow in comparing with that of unconsciousness.

Human consciousness maps merely with some contents in a given state of affairs but does non encompass the whole characteristic of the mind. These contents of the corporate unconscious are normally found at a deep degree of the mind throughout all of world. 7 The contents of the corporate unconscious. therefore. go the beginning of the production of fabulous and spiritual motives with the nonrational dimension of the human experience. Jung attempts to deduce the concrete and immediate characteristics of the mind from the impression of the corporate unconscious.

From his position. reason consequences from the procedure of abstract concluding from psychic informations grasped in consciousness. Jung introduces and employs the constructs of the corporate unconscious in Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido in 1912 ( translated as The Psychology of the Unconscious ) . which is subsequently revised under the rubric Symbole der Wandlung in 1952 ( Symbols of Transformation ) . Harmonizing to Jung. Creative phantasy is continually engaged in bring forthing analogies to instinctual procedures in order to liberate the libido from sheer instinctuality by steering it toward analogical thoughts.

. . . The libido has. as it were. a natural preference: it is similar H2O. which must hold a gradient if it is to flux. The nature of these analogies is hence a serious job because. as we have said. they must be thoughts which attract the libido. Their particular character is. I believe. to be discerned in the fact that they are originals. that is. cosmopolitan and inherited forms which. taken together. represent the construction of the unconscious. 8 By utilizing the metaphor “water” for the flow of libido. Jung brings the character of perceptual way to the psychic construction.

Libido is the energy bring forthing the psychic quality that transmits the unconscious Jung’s Archetypal Structure of the Psyche and the Principle of Synchronicity 5 contents ( such as originative phantasy or imaginativeness ) into the witting. This procedure of libido is non developed merely in a insistent and quantitative form but in a specific manner as in the way of water-flow. Libido does non intend the phenomenon of energy that manifests merely quantitative character. As Volney Gay makes the difference between energy and libido. “it [ energy ] is strictly quantitative and comparative. non qualitative and peculiar.

Yet libido has particular negative qualities ( demand. displeasure. unlust ) and particular positive qualities ( pleasance and satisfaction ) . ”9 Libido refers to the peculiar character of the mind with qualitative energy that shows one’s ain disposition. Jung attempts to link the impression of libido with original by bespeaking that the libido is non driven merely by the instinctual dimension. Harmonizing to Jung libido per Se is profoundly rooted in original as the a-priori signifier of the mind. Archetype is the ultimate factor of the unconscious that brings the libidinal flowing into the specific signifier of the mind.

While replete means behavior itself looking in its natural procedure. original is the apriori signifier of replete itself or self-recognition of inherent aptitudes. 10 To set it another manner. Jung maintains that original is a signifier of thought or pattern taking instinctual energy. In this definition of original. libido refers to the psychic procedure developed in archetypical construction. which links instinctual elements with a peculiar form. Both replete and original for Jung are the elements consisting the corporate unconscious. These two are non personally acquired but familial factors in the construction of the unconscious.

Yet. while replete is concerned with all unconscious behaviour and physiological phenomena as the basic procedure of human being. original is defined as the stage prior to instinct. In other words. original is concerned with one’s ain thought. perceptual experience. and intuition formed in the deep degree of the unconscious. Jung supposes that the original is the cardinal root supplying the psychic experience with a certain character in a definite manner. The relation between original and inherent aptitude is as follows: We besides find in the unconscious qualities that are non separately acquired but are inherited. vitamin E.

g. . inherent aptitudes as urges to transport out actions from necessity. without witting motive. In this “deeper” stratum we besides find the a priori. congenital signifiers of “intuition. ” viz. the originals of perceptual experience and apprehensiveness. which are the necessary a priori determiners of all psychic procedures. Merely as his inherent aptitudes compel adult male to a specifically human manner of being. so the originals coerce his ways of perceptual experience and apprehensiveness into specifically human forms. The inherent aptitudes and the originals together form the “collective unconscious.

”11 6 Chapter One Thus is the relation between original and inherent aptitude non counter but correlate in the fundamental law of the corporate unconscious. Psychic energy such as originative phantasy and imaginativeness should be considered the transmutation of inherent aptitude in the unconditioned signifier of original. “Both ( replete and original ) are existent. together they form a brace of antonyms. which is one of the most fruitful beginnings of psychic energy. There is no point in driving one from the other in order to give primacy to one of them.

”12 In this mode Jung accentuates the complementary relation between inherent aptitude and original as facets of the corporate unconscious. Whereas inherent aptitude can be known scientifically in the subjects of physiology or neurology in relation to the body-ego. 13 harmonizing to Jung. the character of original as the unknown world is non grasped in our perceptual experience. Jung writes that “even if we know merely one at first. and do non detect the other until much subsequently. that does non turn out that the other was non at that place all the clip.

” 14 Jung’s statement indicates that our archetypical cognition can non be identified with the physical universe. He argues that original can non be grasped by our cognition and apprehension ; original is non known in itself but represented in different images of our life. In an effort to separate the quality of original from inherent aptitude. Jung uses metaphors of colour. The instinctual image is to be located non at the ruddy terminal but at the purple terminal of the coloring material set. The dynamism of inherent aptitude is lodged as it were in the infra-red portion of the spectrum. whereas the instinctual image lies in the ultra-violet portion.

If we remember our color symbolism. so. as I have said. ruddy is non such a bad lucifer for replete. But for spirit. as might be expected. blue would be a better lucifer than violet. Violet is the ‘mystic’ coloring material. and it surely reflects the beyond doubt ‘mystic’ or self-contradictory quality of the original in a most satisfactory manner. 15 The ground the colour of violet as a metaphor helps to understand archetypical images is the fact that it is non at the same degree as other colourss but instead is the colour embracing several other colourss.

While “red” or “blue” refers to a typical colour. “violet” consists of the combination of such colourss. thereby going correspondent to the self-contradictory images of original. With mention to this quality of colourss. Jung uses another metaphor. ultra-violet. to propose the unseeable part of the spectrum beyond the colour of violet. archetype itself. Merely as ultra-violet shows the character of the meta-color ( i. e. . colour of colourss ) . so is archetype itself the ultimate signifier prior to the distinction between head and organic structure or spirit and inherent aptitude.

Jung’s Archetypal Structure of the Psyche and the Principle of Synchronicity 7 Jung’s usage of violet as a metaphor is non a perfect tantrum for archetypical image. Whereas archetypical image is driven from the a-priori signifier of our experience. violet comes from the a-posteriori signifier that consequences from the mixture of different colourss. Despite this difference Jung characterizes violet as the colour that receives other colourss. instead than as to the name for a peculiar colour. Violet is a compound of bluish and ruddy. although in the spectrum it is a coloring material in its ain right.

Now. it is. as it happens. instead more than merely an enlightening idea if we feel bound to stress that the original is more accurately characterized by violet. for. every bit good as being an image in its ain right. it is at the same clip a dynamism which makes itself felt in the numinosity and intriguing power of the archetypical image. 16 As violet appears in some combination of different colourss but is non merely definable for its colour itself like ruddy or bluish. so archetypical representation is expressed in diverse images of the phenomenal universe but non easy grasped by our perceptual experience.

In this mode. we can non specify original per Se. which is non merely located in our perceptual experience. Archetype is represented by self-contradictory characteristics instead than distinct contents of a concrete impression. Because the original is a formative rule of instinctual power. its blue is contaminated with ruddy: it appears to be violet. once more. we could construe the simile as an apocatastasis of inherent aptitude raised to a higher frequence. merely as we could easy derived inherent aptitude from a latent ( i. e. . transcendent ) original that manifests itself on a longer wave-length.

Although it can true be no more than an analogy. I however feel tempted to urge this violet image to my reader as an exemplifying intimation of the archetype’s affinity with its ain antonym. The originative phantasy of the alchemists sought to show this abstruse secrete of nature by agencies of another. no less concrete symbol: the Uroboros. or tail-eating snake. 17 Jung maintains that archetype refers to the symbolic stage of the pre-ego position. which is unknown to human consciousness.

Through the illustration of the uroboros. Jung defines archetype as the non-differential characteristic and the wholistic image of the existence before the outgrowth of the self-importance. This means that original is non a certain phase of the ego-development but affects its whole phases. By manner of this. original refers to the united signifier between single and the collective. the mind and the physical event. the topic and the object. the human being and nature.

These opposite characters can go counter in their separation by the outgrowth of the ego-consciousness but paradoxically united and 8 Chapter One undifferentiated in the original. Harmonizing to Jung. the original itself is distinguished from archetypical representations. Like the unseeable character of ultra-violet. original is the non-differential or “irrepresentable” signifier. The archetypical representations ( images and thoughts ) mediated to us by the unconscious should non be confused with the original as such.

They are really varied constructions which all point back to one basically “irrepresentable” basic signifier. The latter is characterized by certain formal elements and by certain cardinal significances. although these can be grasped merely about. The original as such is a psychoid factor that belongs. as it were. to the unseeable. ultraviolet terminal of the psychic spectrum. It does non look. in itself. to be capable of making consciousness. I venture this hypothesis because everything archetypal which is perceived by consciousness seems.

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