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Land pollution is mainly about the contamination and degradation Of Earth’s land surfaces. Contamination Of soil can affect the growth rate of plants and reduce the fertility of soil (Rodgers, 2010). Land pollutions can also happen when pesticides, harmful chemicals and waste from industrial factories are released into the soil without control. There have been many cases of land pollution that happened during the past centuries. For example, U. S. Geological Survey (1997) stated that a massive leak from a military fuel storage facility in Hanna, South Carolina charged about 80, 000 gallons of kerosene-based jet fuel into the soil.

The contaminated soil reached the nearby residential area after 10 years and caused a serious environmental problem to the residents. Other examples include crude oil spill in Bemired, sewage effluent in Cape Cod and chlorinated solvents in New Jersey (U. S. Geological Survey, 1997). The major factor that caused these incidents to happen is the lack of precaution and awareness. Fuel tanks, crude oils and other contaminants should be kept safe as leakage of these harmful substances can cause the land to be totally uninhabitable in extreme cases.

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The main source of soil pollution is the use of chemicals in agriculture such as herbicides to kill weed and pesticides to kill insects and other invertebrate pests (Notation, 2010). This practice has caused a lot of problems to the nature environment balance and toxic residues that are hazardous to health in the environment. Land pollution can bring forth impacts such as making a place unsightly, retardation in tourism industry, reduction in living conditions of affected area, increase in number of pests and affecting plant growth. Landfill is also one of the causes of land pollution.

Landfills are problematic because these disposal sites are usually abandoned or neglected. Hazardous waste is sometimes disposed illegally and in dangerous manner such that health of citizens is deteriorated. Statistics from Land Pollution (n . D. ) show that landfill consist of 50% paper, plastic, 6% metal, 1% glass, 13% organic and 20% of miscellaneous. Most of these waste products can be reduced by practicing recycling or reuse. Land pollution is one of the classes of pollution that should be given high priority to reduce and eventually prevent so that a healthy environment can be established.

The second common type of pollution is water pollution. Water pollution is a worse scenario where water is adulterated by risky and hazardous substances, causing it to be in a displeasing state. It takes place when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into the soils, rivers, lakes and oceans without proper and enough treatment to eliminate the harmful effluent (What is water pollution, n. D. ). Water pollution is on the rise and is going to have a disastrous effect that happens around the globe. In fact this issue has been the second most crucial environmental concern along with air pollution (What is water pollution, n.

Lime (2005) reported that the level of pollution in China’s rivers and lakes surplus 70%. On the other hand, based on other research, 95% of the samples tested were polluted by raw sewage waste (Lime, 2005). The major factor of water pollution is industrial pollution. When factories and manufacturers dispose chemical and livestock wastes into the water bodies, the water soon turn noxious and deleterious. The growth of algae is boosted. As a result, the oxygen in the water depletes, causing the death of aquatic species. The U. S.

Environmental Protection Agency concluded that approximately 40% of the county’s surveyed rivers, sakes and estuaries were polluted by phosphates and nitrates, asbestos, mercury, lead and other sodium compounds. Apart from that, other lethal and toxic by products have also been, and continue to be released by responsive factories whereas the construction industries are found to discharge slurries of gypsum, cement, abrasives and metals. Meanwhile, polycarbonate phenyl (BPCS), plastic wrappers and adhesives are also the causes of water pollution (Water pollution, n. . ). According to Thomas (2007), BPCS were among the twelve highly toxic chemicals targeted for elimination y Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2004 (Thomas, 2007). Other than that, the oil spilled from tankers and offshore rigs has also lead to water pollution which in turn causing massive destruction to the environment. On top of its adverse effect to wildlife, oil tends to absorb high level of fat-soluble poisons like EDT contaminations, allowing toxic to accumulate in organisms.

For that reason, the food chains are disturbed and left a multitude of long-term problems to animals as well as human beings (Water pollution, n. D. ). The ecology runs unabated. Whitney (2007) stipulated hat apart from being banned at the end of 1972, EDT can cause liver cancer by the U. S Environmental Protection Agency. Besides that, pesticides sprayed onto food crops is another cause of water pollution. Transportation occurs when nutrients from organic and chemical fertilizers are in excess, thus contaminates the water. In addition, water gets polluted when wastes are not disposed in a proper manner.

All these have contributed to the disappearance of aquatic organisms and greatly affect humans health (What is water pollution, n. D. ). Air pollution is the third type of pollution Of the environment. Pudenda (2012) mentioned that air pollution is combination of natural and chemical compound in the air gets filled with too much gases, particulate matter, and droplets of liquid. An over-emission of gases into the atmosphere may lead to unbalance of natural cycle (Main type of pollution, n. D). Bergman (2011) claims that air pollution can divide into two which is “primary or secondary”.

Smoke and car exhausts are the examples of the primary pollution which release directly to the air. Secondary pollution forms when chemical reactions changes primary pollutants such as formation of reporters ozone. Burning of fossil fuels, coal and other materials in oil refineries, factories, automobiles are common sources of air pollution (Pollution, 2012). Besides that, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CIFS) and nitrogen oxides are the main elements of pollution gases in the air (Main type of pollution, n. D).

The increase of air pollution year by year may cause severe damage to earth’s ecosystem (Has, 2001). Usually the main cause of air pollution is caused by human being. The burning of fuel may directly releases harmful chemical into air. Furthermore, Pudenda (2012) asserts that air pollution may affect the cardiac-respiratory problem of human being and other health problems such as irritation Of throat, lung and eyes. Other than health problem, air pollution may result environment problems such as global warming, green house effect, acid rain and climate change.

People need to understand the causes of air pollution as global warming leads to the end when ecosystem is unbalanced (Has, 2001). Over the years, the rate of human diseases and the rate of death increase. On the other hand, it is crucial to reduce air pollution. For instance, car pooling, proper vehicle care and use of the public transport are some alternatives to reduce air pollution. In addition, saving energy, plant more trees, “GO GREEN” campaigns and renewable energy recourses are the other ways to reduce air pollution (Main type of pollution, n. D).

Finally, sound pollution is the fourth type of pollution of the environment. Noise is a type of sound pollution as it can cause one to have psychological stress. This is due to the fact that sound, according to Lie and Roberts (1 999, p. 3) is defined as the vibration of airborne perceptible to the AR, whereas noise is defined as undesired sound to the ear. Noise can be found everywhere not just in factories or construction sites, but on the road, on air or and even in housing areas. Each forms of sound or noise has its own sound pressure levels and unit used to express it is known as decibel (db).

According to Chambers (2005) the comfort level of human hearing is db or less, however, noise sources from a diesel truck can produce up to 1 1 Db to the human ear which is considered annoying for human as it exceeds the comfort level of human. Even in heavy traffic and business area, the noise level can reach up to 1 Dobb. Generally, noise level has gone up around old annually for the last 30 years in major cities (Chambers, 2005). People react to noise differently as they have their own perception and their own limit Of sound level to consider the sound to be categorized as noise.

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