The chief findings of the research survey show that hotels have by and large a positive perceptual experience towards green schemes but they find that such schemes are non straight linked to the hotel concern. The green schemes constitute a reactive ( antiphonal ) procedure and non a proactive. The chief green patterns for little and independent hotels involve energy preservation and recycling, whereas for larger hotels they involve H2O preservation, waste direction and supply concatenation direction every bit good. Sing the benefits gained by green patterns the findings showed that the most of import 1s are cost-saving and ethical values, but no links to competitory advantages were identified. The chief inducements for the acceptance of green schemes are: efficiency, corporate societal duty and selling benefits, whereas the chief inhibitors are: deficiency of cognition and deficiency of preparation in following environmental direction systems and integrating them into the scheme and high costs for presenting holistic green schemes.
Table of Contentss
Chapter One: Introduction 5
1.1 Green Practices and Hotels 5
1.2 Research Problem Description 7
1.3 Chapters of the Dissertation 9
Chapter Two: Reappraisal of the Literature 10
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Green Schemes in the Hospitality Industry 11
2.3 Green Schemes, Environmental Practices and Hotels ‘ Performance 14
2.4 Drivers and Hindering Factors for the Adoption of Green schemes and Environmental Practices by Hotels 17
2.5 Summary of the Main Subjects of the Review of Literature 22
Chapter Three: Research Methodology and Research Methods 23
3.1 Introduction to the Research Methodology 23
3.2 Research Methodology 24
3.2.1 Doctrine 24
3.2.2 Reasoning 26
3.3 Research Design 28
3.3.1 Roll uping the Data 28
3.3.2 Sample and Access 31
3.3.3 Research Operationalization 33
3.3.4 Ethical motives for the Research Study 34
Chapter Four: Research Results 35
4.1 Introduction to the Analysis of the Research Results 35
4.2 Hotels ‘ perceptual experience of green schemes and hotels ‘ operationalization of green patterns 36
4.3 Green Practices Employed by the Hotels, their Benefits and Links to Competitive Advantages 39
4.4 Factors Promoting or Suppressing the Adoption of Environmental Management Systems ( based on the perceptual experiences of Hoteliers and Hotel Managers ) 41
Chapter Five: Decision 44
Chapter Six: Recommendations 47
Chapter Seven: Contemplations 50
Chapter One: Introduction
1.1 Green Practices and Hotels
Many research surveies have showed that the service industry is progressively switching its attending towards sustainability and plans or policies that guarantee sustainable development. Kasim ( 2007 ) , Kasim et Al. ( 2008 ) , Molina – Asorin et Al. ( 2009 ) , Raggi and Petti ( 2006 ) and Tzschentke et Al. ( 2004 ) agree that recently service houses have realized the demand for sustainability in their operations and have generated and undertaken enterprises and steps towards this terminal. While sustainability can take several signifiers in the countries of economic sciences and society ( economic sustainability and societal sustainability ) , the service industry is immensely associated with the country of environmental sustainability ( Graci and Dodds, 2008 ; Robinet and Giannelloni, 2010 ; Sloan et al. , 2005 ) . This occurs more obviously in the hotel service sector as there is a recorded tendency which indicates an full orientation towards ‘greening ‘ patterns. Harmonizing to Goodman ( 2000 ) and Moreo et Al. ( 2009 ) hotels have shown a far greater involvement in the environmental sustainability of their operations regardless the fact that their operations account for much less environmental influence than any other service houses. Alternatively, Kasim ( 2007 ) explains that in the visible radiation of the sustainable touristry and the green ‘customer ‘ and given the fact that hotel and adjustment service houses do hold an impact on the environmental issue particularly due to the waste, energy ingestion and H2O ingestion, there is a justified and apparent concern for sustainable patterns.
The green issues are by and large get downing to rule consumers ‘ gustatory sensations and penchants in all industries including the service industries. Harmonizing to Sloan et Al. ( 2005 ) the service industry and peculiarly the cordial reception industry has gain a particular topographic point in the full ‘going viridity ‘ tendency due to the fact that tourers have shown an ongoing and increasing demand for ‘green ‘ services. Kasim ( 2004 ) and Kasim et Al. ( 2008 ) besides provide some measurings which show that consumers, particularly in the Western European states non merely follow an environmentally friendly profile in their life style, but besides base their picks in respects to their ingestion wonts on their green concerns. The environmental duty and the environmental sustainable direction patterns of houses are hence cardinal properties that are assumed to act upon the perceptual experience of clients who have already developed such an orientation. But apart from that, the ecological profile of houses is besides considered to be appealing to the wider market due to the latest tendencies towards environmental protection.
In the cordial reception industry the green profile of consumers and the demand for green services is non an exclusion. Carter et Al. ( 2004 ) , Houdre ( 2008 ) , Graci and Dodds ( 2008 ) , Mensah ( 2006 ) and Tzschentke et Al. ( 2009 ) have made a particular mention to several surveies which show that tourers and clients appear to demo great penchant to hotels and adjustment services which well implement sustainability direction patterns peculiarly in the signifier of environmental sustainability. In a survey referred to by Bohdanowicz and Martinac ( 2003 ) , particularly for the instance of hotels, clients ‘ involvement in green services has grown immensely during the last old ages. The same writers, carry oning a research on hotelkeepers have concluded that the bulk of European hotel constitutions show an increasing involvement excessively towards sustainability in their effort non merely to accomplish efficiency but preponderantly to accomplish fight and competitory advantage through supplying quality and sustainable services which adhere to the satisfaction of their clients.
The issue of environmental sustainability in the signifier of ecological and environmental direction patterns in the service houses and peculiarly in the cordial reception industry ( viz. the hotels ) has become a major facet in the docket of such organisations ( Ayuso, 2006 ) . Nowadays, the planetary heating and the overall environmental jeopardies produced by the houses, concerns about the sustainability of the operations have been intensified. As Bohdanowicz ( 2005 ) provinces, the operations of hotels have in fact been environmentally intensive given that there has been an recognition of their portion in the environmental pollution. Waste, H2O ingestion and energy ingestion are amongst the most critical issues that the service houses ( and accordingly the hotels ) can really be mostly responsible for. In the visible radiation of the recognition of the demand to forestall the harm to the environment, sustainable patterns begin to look in the operations and processs every bit good as in the activities of such service houses. Harmonizing to Houdre ( 2008 ) , in the last decennary the figure of hotels that at least claim sustainable development through environmental direction patterns has grown dramatically and this reflects non merely the displacement in direction ‘s attending but besides the displacement in the markets ‘ demands
The green patterns and schemes of hotels are straight linked with benefits and this justifies their importance. For illustration, Kassinis and Soteriou ( 2003 ) investigated the links between sustainable development of service organisations and their public presentation measured fundamentally by client satisfaction and by client trueness and conclude that the green schemes and patterns have a positive consequence on the public presentation and specifically on the degrees of client satisfaction and client trueness. Robinot and Giannelloni ( 2010 ) besides in their survey showed that the environmental label of hotels basically produces non merely touchable benefits ( efficiency ) but intangible additions as good and peculiarly client satisfaction. The oncoming of these benefits foremost and first explains the significance of the research country itself.
1.2 Research Problem Description
In malice of the grounds that in most European states the green schemes and green direction patterns are get downing to rule the hotels ‘ dockets, in Greece there is limited grounds on the one manus, but besides some studies indicate that Grecian hotels are still instead behind in this mode. Nikolaou et Al. ( 2012 ) province that Grecian hotelkeepers are still loath and that their willingness to follow ‘proactive ‘ schemes, with respects to the environmental issues, is much questionable. At the same clip the importance of green patterns and schemes is going more and more explicit. Get downing from the deficiency of grounds and deficient literature on the patterns of Grecian hotels towards environmental sustainability and green schemes, and taking into consideration that there are so some forces that drive or deter hotelkeepers from following such schemes, the current thesis purposes at detecting which factors are considered as critical for driving environmental enterprises on the portion of the hotels. Particularly, the intent of the thesis is to look into the general topic of hotels ‘ green patterns on the one manus and on the other manus to place and understand which forces are driving environmental schemes.
To carry through the intent, the thesis is based on primary research which allows the research worker to turn to the undermentioned aims:
to analyze how hotels perceive green schemes and place what constitutes green patterns in a hotel ‘s operational environment
to analyze the extent to which Greek hotels employ green patterns and associate these to significant benefits and competitory advantage ( whether they employ a green scheme )
to analyze the perceptual experiences of the hotels in respects to the factors that promote them to follow green schemes or instead in respects to the factors that hinder the acceptance of such schemes and patterns
to roll up grounds so as to do recommendations in footings of green patterns in the hotel and cordial reception services sector.
1.3 Chapters of the Dissertation
The following chapters of the thesis have been organized on five major subdivisions. The 2nd subdivision ( predating the debut ) presents the background theory which analyzes the three basic topics of the research: the sustainable development and environmental direction patterns of hotels as these are pointed in research surveies, the benefits of the green schemes in respects to competitory advantage of hotels and eventually the literature findings in footings of factors suppressing or advancing green patterns. The 3rd subdivision presents the research methodological analysis which was adopted for the execution of the primary survey. This subdivision justifies all facets of the research design and illustrates the methods that were used in all provinces of the survey. The 4th subdivision presents the consequences generated from the research that was undertaken and basically offers the analysis for the research inquiries. The 5th subdivision presents the basic decisions that were derived from the analysis and provides support from the relevant literature. The 6th subdivision offers recommendations on the footing of the findings of the research. Finally, the 7th subdivision presents some personal contemplations on the accomplishments of the thesis and suggestions for future research models.
Chapter Two: Reappraisal of the Literature
On a planetary graduated table the environmental pollution and the urgency to continue to environmental sustainable patterns have been dominant issues in the concern universe. This is chiefly because the operations of the organisations and houses have a important consequence on the environment ; this is non merely limited to the fabrication sector but the service sector as good. In footings of the cordial reception industry, the demand for green schemes and sustainable plans becomes more and more obvious given the reported impact that hotels have on their environment. Some figures bing on the issue reveal that on an one-year footing, European hotels are responsible for 30 nine TWh of the energy ingestion, they are responsible for every bit much as 200kg CO2 emanations in the ambiance ( this is per square metre of room ) , they consume highly big measures of H2O and besides they are responsible for 1 kilogram of waste for each twenty-four hours for each invitee on norm ( Bohdanowicz, 2005a ) . Recognizing the magnitude of the consequence of the hotels ‘ operations, sing that hotels are service suppliers, has contributed to the addition in the involvement in following patterns and schemes to restrict the impact and to aim sustainable operations.
The undermentioned treatment focuses on the literature researching the green schemes in the cordial reception industry, the most common environmental patterns and enterprises, the association between green schemes and hotels ‘ public presentation and eventually the drive factors/ inducements every bit good as the impeding factors in the acceptance of environmental direction and environmental schemes. The writer aims to inform the reader of the different positions and the relevant research surveies along with their findings and decisions on the topic of hotels ‘ green patterns.
2.2 Green Schemes in the Hospitality Industry
The cordial reception industry is one which is significantly affected by the increasing demand of the green consumer. Brown ( 1996 ) , Chan and Ho ( 2006 ) and Kirk ( 1995 ) indicate that the first hints towards green patterns and environmental direction in the hotel sector have began since the early 1990s, where the first force per unit areas towards responsible waste direction, energy and H2O ingestion every bit good as the overall tendency towards ‘environmental friendly ‘ adjustment had initiated their manner in the market. Carmona-Moreno et Al. ( 2004 ) and Olson ( 2008 ) explain that in every concern sector and particularly in the services industries, the focal point on environmental policies and green schemes has been credited to two critical factors: foremost, the increasing concern of communities and markets over the job of the environmental pollution and the demand for environmental sustainability ( which in bend drive governmental action towards seting force per unit areas on the houses to admit their environmental impact on the one manus and so take steps in order to happen environmental friendly solutions for their operations ) and 2nd, the increasing demand of the houses themselves to advance themselves as being environmentally sensitive, responsible and active and pass on their green attacks so as to carry through betterment in their public presentation through perchance deriving competitory advantage. In the cordial reception industry, Bohdanovicz ( 2005a ) remarks that the chief factors that have increased the environmental schemes employed by houses include: the intensified populace ‘s environmental consciousness, which calls for houses ‘ actions, the development of societal motions concentrating on environmental concern, the growing of the green ingestion ( green consumerism ) , the forces of ordinances or environmental -related Torahs at the governmental degree and the demand for efficiency and sustainability required by the houses themselves. The environmental schemes therefore can be seen as a consequence of mixture of push and pull factors. In the duality of pull and push factors, Brown ( 1996 ) identifies the proactive and the reactive environmental patterns ; reactive schemes are really responses of houses in force per unit areas from the society or the authoritiess or the markets, whereas proactive schemes are really actions and enterprises made by the houses in such a manner that the green and environmental concerns go built-in to their strategic dockets and the demand for alteration in order to suit these enterprises and actions is recognized as portion of the scheme every bit good.
Common schemes and policies in the green docket of hotels and houses in the cordial reception industry include several tools. Ayuso ( 2006 ) categorise the most often adopted patterns on the portion of hotels in five discrepancies ( Figure 1 ) . ( a ) The codifications of behavior that, stand for cardinal rules to which, hotels should conform and perpetrate. For illustration the Agenda 21 which is a plan adopted by one hundred and eighty two states in regard to sustainable development and sustainable growing and which entails particular attending to the touristry and travel industry. ( B ) The Best Environmental Practices, which are applications and steps taken at the company degree in order to operationalize the environmental scheme. For illustration, such patterns include steps over energy ingestion, H2O ingestion and decrease of waste ( godforsaken direction ) . ( degree Celsius ) Ecological Labels, which are patterns to guarantee enfranchisement for environmental direction. ( vitamin D ) Environmental Management Systems ( EMSs ) , which are tools enabling the effectual direction of the ‘green ‘ company and which set out schemes and environmental policies. For illustration, the ISO 4001 and the European Regulations for EMSs are such systems. ( vitamin E ) Environmental Performance Indicators, which are specific measurings, set in order to measure the grade of environmental effectivity in the public presentation of the hotels.
Figure 1: Green and Environmental Tools in the Hospitality Industry
( Beginning: Ayuso, 2006, p. 209 )
Aside from the scheme degree, the patterns of hotels in respects to the green orientation and environmental sustainability include a figure of different activities. In peculiar, research surveies researching the green operations in the cordial reception industry reveal that the most common patterns are: waste direction, energy ingestion and H2O ingestion decrease ( Bohdanowicz, 2005a ; Bohdanowicz, 2005b ; Mensah, 2006 ; Ogbeide, 2012 ; Uknown, 2009 ) . Within these three patterns, enterprises include a figure of actions undertaken by hotels. Ogbeide ( 2012 ) illustrated the most common enterprises found in the cordial reception industry are the usage of energy-efficient lighting ( with the usage of ecological visible radiation bulbs, with the usage of light -efficient fixtures, with the usage of low temperature grade wash ) , H2O efficient mechanisms and systems ( such as low blushing lavatories, valves that coordinate the H2O flow, linen and towel reuse plans to cut down H2O ingestion ) , usage of green stuffs in the edifices ( so as to increase energy preservation ) , development of green edifices ( Leadership in Energy Environmental Design – LEED enfranchisement ) , recycling plans through waste sorting and efficient waste direction through reclaimable and reclaimable merchandises ( particularly in the cleansing merchandise classs ) , paperwork decrease through acceptance of electronic systems ( for illustration electronic mails for the internal communicating, electronic check-ins and check-outs ) . Bohdanowicz ( 2005a ) and Bohdanowicz ( 2005b ) besides found that some other really common green patterns of hotels include the supply of environmentally friendly merchandises ; green nutrient merchandises in the eating house bill of fare, environmentally friendly wash and detergent merchandises and certified furniture ( from certified woods ) . As Mensah ( 2006 ) remarks the patterns can run from little scale enterprises to big graduated table plans ( such as edifices for case ) and all these have a topographic point in the environmental schemes of hotels.
2.3 Green Schemes, Environmental Practices and Hotels ‘ Performance
The association between green schemes and branding effects has been discussed in many research surveies and in several articles as a basic advantage that green orientation has on the public presentation of houses. Hartmann et Al. ( 2005 ) and Hartmann and Ibanez ( 2006 ) illustrate that green schemes and environmental direction patterns affect the trade name perceptual experiences, the consumers ‘ attitudes and the purchase behavior of people, proposing hence, that active environmental concern and duty on the portion of houses can really better their market public presentation. Lee ( 2009 ) has farther indicated that the green schemes affect the public presentation of the houses through the impacts on the profitableness and the cost nest eggs.
Manaktola and Jauhari ( 2007 ) were concerned about the impact of the environmental patterns of hotels on the consumers ‘ perceptual experiences and willingness to pay more for green adjustment. The research workers have conducted a research on the Indian cordial reception market and have found that clients ‘ evaluations of the quality of the green hotels were higher compared to non-green hotels but the most of import issue they found was that the clients were non willing to pay higher monetary values for green services. The deductions of these findings, harmonizing to Manaktola and Jauhari ( 2007 ) reveal that the hotels need to incorporate green patterns and environmental policies in their schemes but they should non see these as value adding issues ( given that clients are in fact influenced by such patterns but are non willing to pay excess for these ) ; such patterns and policies should be embedded and incorporated to their direction agendas merely as any other patterns are incorporated. The critical issue in this is that environmental schemes need non to be the ‘advantage ‘ of some hotels ( the differentiated services offered for illustration ) , but they need to be merged with the package of services that the hotels offer. As it is advocated by Robinot and Gianelloni ( 2010 ) , green patterns must derive a topographic point in the scheme of hotels merely as other traditional or everyday patterns maintain their ain topographic point. Particularly, Robinot and Gianelloni ( 2010 ) studied the consequence of green patterns of hotels on the satisfaction of clients and interestingly plenty they found that there is non an immediate impact instead an indirect consequence on the footing of the followers: green patterns and environmental properties of hotels were non considered by clients as a discriminator in the service proviso ( discriminator in footings of rivals ) but as a ‘basic ‘ service offering. As the research workers explain, the green consumers today expect the green patterns to be integrated in the cardinal service bringing.
Ogbeide ( 2012 ) likewise investigated the consumers ‘ attitudes towards green hotels and more specifically their perceptual experiences over peculiar environmental patterns. The research showed that clients value the energy preservation patterns and that hotels that communicate their dockets on this every bit good as their schemes for this tend to be more positively perceived by the clients. Furthermore, Ogbeide ( 2012 ) illustrates that the green hotel patterns influence consumers ‘ determination devising in footings of choosing their adjustment ; bespeaking hence, that the public presentation of the hotel is affected by its green policies and patterns. But the environmental direction patterns are non merely restricting their effects on the consumers ‘ perceptual experiences, they besides have an impact on the clients ‘ trueness. Kassinis and Soteriou ( 2003 ) studied the consequence that the green patterns have on the trueness of clients and the market public presentation of houses. In their survey they showed that the environmental direction and green orientation positively affected the trueness of clients and this latter one being a important beginning of competitory advantage positively affected their public presentation.
Kasim ( 2007 ) has summarized the public presentation additions into six basic benefits assumed by the hotels when they become environmentally responsible ( Figure 2 ) . These benefits include: cost decrease ( efficiency and minimisation of resource ingestion ) , market attraction ( appealing to the green consumers ) , trueness and motive of the staff, improved trade name image, actively covering with possible hazards ( such hazards for illustration are the impairment of the environment which might harm the visitants ‘ attractive force ) and eventually conformity to the jurisprudence or any other environmental ordinances ( non-conformance can convey liabilities to the hotels ) .
Figure 2: Benefits of Environmental Management Practices for Hotels
( Beginning: Kasim, 2007, p. 32 )
2.4 Drivers and Hindering Factors for the Adoption of Green schemes and Environmental Practices by Hotels
Graci and Dodds ( 2008 ) make a really interesting remark on the green schemes within the overall concern sectors. They point out that while research surveies continuously stress that the tendency for environmental concern and environmental duty is turning, the existent environmental patterns ( exemplifying the duty and the concern ) are disproportionately turning ; although the involvement appears to be increasing, the existent patterns and schemes do non increase in correspondent gait. This becomes even more apparent in the cordial reception industry, which harmonizing to Graci and Dodds ( 2008 ) is characterized by a ‘gap ‘ between the positive attitudes of hotelkeepers towards green schemes and their action in following such schemes. For this really ground, researching the drivers and the hindering factors for the execution of environmental patterns is of import so as to understand why this spread exists.
Tzschentke et Al. ( 2004 ) studied the drivers for following green schemes and environmental direction patterns in adjustment service suppliers in Scotland. The research workers focused on little houses chiefly and through interviews with the proprietors and directors they illustrated that the most critical motivations are the personal values and the intrinsic drivers for environmental protection and environmental responsible behavior. In their research, the push factors ( internal factors ) were far more of import than the pull factors for the little cordial reception houses and this can be explained by the fact that in such instances, where determination devising is based normally on ownership or on few-layer direction, it is the personal motivation that becomes the chief drive force for sustainability policies. Particularly, in little cordial reception houses where the strategic determinations are made either by the proprietor or by the director, the determination to follow green orientation becomes much easier and it is driven by the ethical values of the proprietor or the director. Tzschentke et Al. ( 2004 ) explain that this might be due to the simpleness in the process of determination devising. For illustration, instead in big hotels or hotel ironss, one hindering factor is that there are excessively many being involved in the determination devising ( towards traveling green for case ) and this constitutes the determination doing a instead hard and clip -consuming procedure.
Ayuso ( 2006 ) researched the grade in which Spanish hotels adopt voluntary environmental patterns and green schemes and peculiarly the factors that drive acceptance of such patterns. The general decision drawn by the survey is that hotel directors have small consciousness of the sustainable concern and limited cognition on the assorted environmental policy tools and patterns and accordingly these impede the voluntary green direction.
“ The limited conceptual apprehension of concern sustainability and duty can be seen as one of the grounds for the low degree of execution of bing voluntary environmental tools in the hotel sector, sing the determination that hotel director consciousness has been identified as an of import driver for using environmental tools ” ( Ayuso, 2006, pp. 217-218 ) .
Therefore, while consciousness ( of both the tools and patterns of green schemes every bit good as the overall significance of sustainable concern behaviors ) is considered to be one of the most critical drivers for following green orientation and integrating green patterns in the hotels ‘ patterns, it is by and large pointed that this consciousness is still losing and therefore, limits the potency for greening the hotel sector in Spain. Alternatively, the same research conducted by Ayuso ( 2006 ) showed that those hotels that adopt environmental schemes voluntarily ( provided that the consciousness is present ) are chiefly driven by two factors: foremost, the stakeholders ‘ demand for sustainable patterns ( fulfilling hence the demand for environmental protection ) and 2nd the competitory additions, such as direct advantages ( cost-efficiency for case ) or even indirect advantages ( bettering corporate image, act uponing client perceptual experience etc ) .
Bohdanowicz ( 2005a ) , within the same spirit, has conducted a big graduated table research on about four 1000 hotels from European states. Some of the most important findings of the research point to the undermentioned issues. First, hotelkeepers in their bulk indicated high consciousness of the importance of the green patterns in the overall sustainability of the environment ; intending that they recognize and realize that following certain steps can heighten environmental protection. At the same clip, however, the same hotelkeepers showed that they do non comprehend a nexus between environmental patterns and their hotels ‘ public presentation ( the selling side of the green scheme ) . Harmonizing to the research worker, this was explained in the survey by the perceptual experience of the hotels on the by and large low demand for green adjustment and green patterns in the cordial reception industry ( that clients ‘ demand for green orientation is non expressed ) . Second, in the same survey, Bohdanowicz ( 2005a ) found that the most critical drivers for green scheme acceptance as stated by the European hotels are: cost efficiency ( cut downing costs of operations ) , clients ‘ demand ( proposing that if the demand becomes expressed so the hotels will travel about following green patterns ) , image betterment and in conclusion force per unit area from environmental ‘trends ‘ . Equally of import is the determination which showed that the handiness of professional advice for green schemes is a factor that increases the willingness to follow such an orientation. In another survey, Bohdanowicz ( 2005b ) studied the hotels ‘ green patterns in two Norse states ( Sweden and Poland ) and showed that hotelkeepers were progressively cognizant of their impact on the environment and that their orientation towards environmental direction and green patterns was chiefly driven by the overall environmental concern. Harmonizing to the research worker, this was greatly attributed to the full Norse civilization which emphasizes the acceptance of green and environmental schemes non merely in the cordial reception sector but in all concern sectors. In Bohdanowicz ‘s ( 2005b ) findings ‘ intimations for the different attitude towards environmental and green patterns ( on the portion of hotels ) owed to the different cultural contexts are being explicitly made. Kasim et Al. ( 2008 ) in their ain research towards the factors act uponing the acceptance of sustainable direction patterns in Malayan hotels indicated that the costs for implementing schemes is often a prohibiting factor, but more significantly that the absence of force per unit area by the local communities, the civilization and the deficiency of regulative models necessitating hotels to ‘go green ‘ were the chief beginnings of involuntariness of hotelkeepers. What Kasim et Al. ( 2008 ) really verified is that the context plays an of import function ; in Malaysia the civilization emphasizes less the importance of environmental duty and this is reflected in the concern schemes. Thereby, different civilizations with different accent on the environmental issues and environmental concerns do hold an impact on the concern patterns.
Nikolaou et Al. ( 2012 ) researching the willingness of hotels in Corfu ( Greece ) to follow environmental direction patterns in order to get by with energy preservation found that although hotelkeepers appeared to demo great involvement ( therefore being willing to exchange to energy efficient patterns ) the two major factors that stand in the manner are the deficiency of necessary information ( sing which peculiar patterns bring about energy efficiency and cut down energy ingestion efficaciously ) and the deficiency of necessary financess or capital to make so. Harmonizing to the research workers, environmental direction patterns can so be adopted in the hotel sector in the country every bit long as proper information and fiscal motivations are in topographic point. Chan and Ho ( 2006 ) had besides antecedently stressed the importance of available financess and capital for sustainable patterns in hotels, when they studied environmental direction systems adopted in several hotels. Furthermore, the research workers showed that in many instances hotels recognize such patterns as effectual but they are unwilling or they are non able to follow an effectual environmental direction system because of limited capital resources.
Aside the demand for proper information and fiscal motivations, other factors that influence the acceptance of green patterns and schemes include the apprehension of the importance of such patterns even though sing some trade offs. Kasim ( 2007 ) showed that in many instances hotels are loath in following specific steps or schemes because of the fact that this might be hard when integrating them in the operations of the hotels or even because they believe that following environmental patterns via medias quality – ” utilizing a lower temperature for wash may take to the premise of ‘low hygiene ‘ among hotel frequenters, thereby adversely impacting the hotel ‘s repute ” ( Kasim, 2007, p. 36 ) – or more significantly because they expect that the costs associated with such patterns are excessively high. Sloan et Al. ( 2005 ) , in their ain survey on German hotels found that by and large hotelkeepers and hotel directors had a really positive attitude towards the green patterns and the chance of environmental direction policies for their houses, but when it comes to execution of such policies and patterns the chief inhibitors were considered the high costs for presenting environmental enterprises and the complicated procedure of intermixing the green scheme with the corporate and concern scheme. Particularly for the sensed complicated procedure, the hotelkeepers showed that the deficiency of preparation and the deficiency of cognition on how to follow green patterns and how to aline these with the overall schemes of the hotels was a really of import factor impeding their willingness to make so. On the other manus, amongst the drivers for green schemes ‘ acceptance, Sloan et Al. ( 2005 ) found that German hotels considered the most critical one to be the cost nest eggs in the long tally derived chiefly from reduced ingestion of energy and H2O.
2.5 Summary of the Main Subjects of the Review of Literature
The impact that the hotels have on the environment should non be omitted by the hotelkeepers and hotel directors, given that some figures reported indicate big effects of the peculiar sector. The green schemes and environmental patterns as constructs have began to emerge in the cordial reception industry for many old ages now, but it is merely in the last old ages that actions and execution are assumed. Hotels ‘ most common patterns include energy preservation, H2O preservation, waste decrease and waste direction.
The green patterns and environmental schemes of hotels are associated with their market public presentation: green orientation influences clients ‘ perceptual experience, trade name attitudes, trade name image and client trueness. These indicate that competitory advantages are executable through green patterns. But what needs to be stressed is that the green patterns should non be considered as a discriminator in the service offerings: consumers tend to anticipate environmental patterns and properties in the services and comprehend them chiefly as being nucleus services and no ‘additional ‘ services. Aside from these, hotels gain benefits from green patterns in the cost -saving and efficiency countries and hence in their profitableness.
Sing the chief inducements for green patterns and schemes for hotels, these fundamentally include: personal values and ethical stances ( particularly in little hotels run by the proprietor ) , the selling effects ( positive trade name image ) , market demand ( clients ‘ demand ) and the possible cost nest eggs in the long tally. Alternatively the chief hindering factors for the hotels ‘ acceptance of green patterns and schemes include: deficiency of consciousness, deficiency of proper information and preparation, perceived complexness for incorporating green schemes to the concern scheme, high costs for presenting environmental direction patterns and systems ( deficiency of capital and financess ) , perceived trade-offs between green patterns and quality of operations or quality of services. The cultural context besides has been shown to be of import in the reviewed surveies, whereby civilizations that emphasize green and environmental orientation influence the patterns of hotelkeepers, while civilizations that do non stress such orientations are besides reflected in the lower willingness of hotelkeepers to follow green schemes.
Chapter Three: Research Methodology and Research Methods
3.1 Introduction to the Research Methodology
The intent of the present chapter is to analyse the research survey that took topographic point in footings of the methods and attacks undertaken by the writer of the thesis. The writer has defined the aims in the first chapter, has discussed the relevant to the research job theories in the 2nd chapter and at this point it is clip to show the agencies by which the research survey was done. The research methodological analysis is more than a simple pick of methods or techniques employed for the probe of the research job, it is really an full attack derived from the systematic process that research workers adopt in order to analyze the research job and it involves the logic behind the this process ( Kothari, 2004 ) . In this chapter, hence, the research methodological analysis including the doctrine and the procedure of concluding are presented in the first portion and in the 2nd portion the research methods including the research design ( aggregation of informations, sample, entree and operationalization of the survey ) are analyzed.
3.2 Research Methodology
In order to explicate the research methodological analysis ( the systematic logic behind the acceptance of the attack to analyze the research job ) two of import topics need to be presented: the research doctrine and the logical thinking procedure ( Remenyi et al. 1998 ) .
Any research survey is underlined by the philosophical paradigm of the research worker, which reflects basic beliefs of what is knowledge in the societal universe ( Masadeh, 2012 ) . The research doctrine is of import to be identified in the beginning of the research, foremost of all because it enhances the research worker ‘s designation and elucidation of the assorted research designs and 2nd because it enables the research worker ‘s pick over the proper and suited research design for the specific research job that s/he has formulated ( Easterby-Smith et al. , 2002 ) .
Harmonizing to Remenyi et Al. ( 1998 ) research begins by three basic philosophical inquiries: “ Why research? What to research? How to research? ” ( p. 23 ) . These three inquiries are cardinal to the research attack because they provide the philosophical background of the survey. The ‘why ‘ inquiry has to make with the cognition base and the intent of the research: whether research is conducted for informing the cognition, making new cognition, verifying bing cognition or understanding the research job. The ‘what ‘ inquiry has to make with the topic of enquiry and specifically what sort of survey replies the why inquiry. Finally the ‘how ‘ inquiry has to make with the agencies of acquiring to the aims that the research survey is bound to carry through. Answering these three inquiries provides an thought of the underlining doctrine, which is so the footing for the full research design.
For the present research study the reply to the old three inquiries are all indicating towards a individual philosophy- the phenomenology or interpretivism. Harmonizing to Crotty ( 1998 ) this doctrine represents the belief that the research is non merely scientific in its nature ( based on objectiveness ) but it can be subjective excessively. Phenomenology in fact is suited opposite to positivism, which is the scientific, experimental research that seeks to mensurate informations in order to objectively make to decisions about the research jobs.
“ Phenomenology takes more or less the opposite attack, situating a position of world as entirely constructed, subjective and societal in nature. With an ontology based in the impression of societal construction-that is, that the nature of world and being is determined by one ‘s subjective actions and point of view, and non ( or non merely ) the other manner around-this attack entails an epistemology that seeks cognition through the societal ‘meaning ‘ of phenomena, instead than their measuring ” ( Masadeh, 2012, pp. 129-130 ) .
In phenomenology or interpretivism the importance is given to the reading or the significance that the people get from the research job and non specifically the job itself. For this really ground, this doctrine is more suited for the societal research, where the interaction and the intercession of the worlds become more of import than the scientific research ( Masadeh, 2012 ) . As Schwandt ( 1998 ) explains interpretivism holds that there is non one world observed, alternatively there are many worlds ; as many are the different readings of the research job.
Traveling back to the three inquiries, which reveal the doctrine of the research worker: the ‘why ‘ inquiry is answered by the really intent of the thesis. The purpose of the research is to look into the general topic of hotels ‘ green patterns on the one manus and on the other manus to place and understand which forces are driving environmental schemes. It is easy understood, therefore, that the intent of the research is non to verify what is already known about the research job, but to analyze the research job in the context of hotels foremost and to understand how hotels adopt green schemes, whether they adopt such schemes and patterns and more significantly why they do so ( what factors promote them or impede them from following such patterns and schemes ) . The reply to the ‘why ‘ inquiry, therefore, is strongly identified with the phenomenology/ interpretivism doctrine ( given the accent on understanding ) . Traveling on, the ‘what ‘ inquiry is answered by the pick over the manner in which apprehension of the research job ( which is the intent ) can be accomplished. Therefore, the object of the survey is the hotels and more exactly the hotelkeepers ‘ or the hotels ‘ directors point of views on the green schemes and patterns and on the factors that promote or hinder the acceptance of such patterns. The object of the survey is hence the ‘subjective ‘ significance and position that the hotelkeepers or hotel directors have on these issues. Again the reply to the ‘what ‘ inquiry, is strongly identified with the phenomenology/ interpretivism ( given the accent on the impression that world is determined by people ‘s subjective point of views as cited earlier in this chapter ) . Finally, the ‘how ‘ inquiry is answered by the pick over the manner in which planing the research will heighten the object of the research ( the apprehension ) . Simply plenty, the ‘how ‘ inquiry is addressed by the choice of this attack and method that allows the research to present the ‘what ‘ and the ‘why ‘ inquiries ( Remenyi et al. , 1998 ) . In the present thesis, the bringing of the two old inquiries can be done through look intoing the point of views of the hotelkeepers or the hotels ‘ directors and hence, the ‘how ‘ inquiry is answered by the pick over the method of roll uping the information or researching their point of views. The method ( which is explained subsequently in this chapter ) is the qualitative interview which enhances the acceptance of the other ‘s point of views and one time once more this is identified with the phenomenology/ interpretivism, given the accent on the apprehension of the significance that persons make on the research job.
The logical thinking procedure besides has to make with the systematic logic of the research survey. It fundamentally represents the manner in which theory is constructed within the research process ( Remenyi et al. 1998 ) . There are two ways of theory building: deductive theory building and inductive theory building. The designation of the logical thinking within the research survey is an issue relevant to three considerations: ( a ) the get downing base for the research job, ( B ) the usage of the bing or past theory, and ( degree Celsius ) the manner in which decisions are generated from the research ( about the research job ) ( Babbie, 2007 ) .
The phenomenology as a research doctrine fundamentally represents a more flexible place towards the research job, where the job is dealt with non by measuring or by proving what is already known, but it is dealt with building new cognition or with seeking for new cognition. Harmonizing to Reitcherz ( 2004 ) this identifies with the inductive logical thinking, which represents the hunt for understanding the research job on what is specifically studied and so turning to the relevant theories to perchance happen forms. Babbie ( 2007 ) explains that the inductive logical thinking is reflected in the procedure of researching a job in order to detect or do decisions about it sing the specific sample and so trying to associate these to the theory or to the rules held universally
Simply plenty, the concluding represents how the research uses the bing cognition on the research job ; the deductive logical thinking is based on the bing cognition in order to place the research job ( deduces to the research job ) and collects informations so as to either verify what is known or instead to reject what is known ( for the specific instance of the survey ) . The inductive logical thinking is based on the research job itself and it collects informations so as to understand the job foremost ( the chief nonsubjective being the apprehension ) and so to happen any forms which can be traced into the bing cognition ( theories ) if possible ( Gray, 2009 ) .
In the present thesis the logical thinking procedure is based on initiation. To lucubrate on this underlining logic of the research methodological analysis two facets are explained: foremost, the theories on the green schemes and patterns of organisations has been used to the extent of bring forthing a theoretical background for the survey and non for the intent of placing or explicating the research job. That is, the bing cognition has served merely the intent of informing the thesis in the beginning. Second, the research survey aims to understand the research job through analyzing some specific hotels and the positions of the hotelkeepers or the hotels ‘ directors and so if possible find some forms which might associate to the bing cognition ( the theory ) . The initiation, hence, is the logic and the logical thinking behind the research survey.
3.3 Research Design
The research design involves the manner in which the research survey is operationalized. Within the research design model, determinations on the method for roll uping the information, determinations on the sample, the entree to the sample, the practical operationalization of the research and the moralss of the research keep a cardinal place. These determinations are discussed in this 2nd portion of the methodological analysis chapter.
3.3.1 Roll uping the Data
In phenomenological/ interpretivist research surveies, where the point of views of the people in construing the research job and in giving significance to the research job are at the centre of attending, the aggregation of informations can be done through interviews ( Hopf, 2004 ) . By definition, the type of informations that is collected is qualitative, given that it is reflected in the perceptual experiences and readings of the people and non on some Numberss or figures ready for measuring. Punch ( 2005 ) states that an interview is “ a good manner of accessing people ‘s perceptual experiences, significances, definitions of state of affairss and buildings of world ” ( p. 168 ) .
Qualitative interviews are largely for three intents: ( a ) for roll uping cognition from experts or from people being excessively closely involved with the research job, ( B ) for analysing the subjective readings of those people ( which is the significance of world in phenomenology/ interpretivism ) and ( degree Celsius ) for following the position of people who have an involvement or have specific experience of the research job ( Hopf, 2004 ) . All three intents presented above are really of import aims of the present research survey: ( a ) assemblage informations and roll uping cognition from the hotelkeepers or the hotel directors ‘ themselves, who are responsible for the green patterns and schemes of their houses is cardinal because they are the 1s how have expertise upon the topic ( the research job ) , ( B ) analysing how subjectively each positions the topic of green patterns and schemes is critical because it provides an apprehension of their ain positions and in kernel this is what matters when it comes to following certain patterns in each organisation and ( degree Celsius ) following the positions of the hotelkeepers or the hotel directors is besides critical because it enables the analysis of informations in such a manner that reflects dependability and credibleness ( given that it is based on their ain beliefs and positions ) and can accordingly be used for supplying recommendations for other hotelkeepers or hotel directors or recommendations for their ain patterns.
In qualitative interviewing there are variant types of interviews. Harmonizing to Punch ( 2005 ) there is one continuum where the two terminals are determined by the structured entailed in the interviews. So, there are the structured interviews on the one terminal, the unstructured interviews on the other terminal and in the center there are the focussed or semi-structured interviews. Bernard ( 2011 ) explains that the construction has to make with the control that research workers wish to exercise during the interviews. So, high control exists in to the full structured interviews and less control exists in unstructured interviews. In semi-structured interviews the control can be both in the custodies of the interviewer and the interviewee, depending on the pick of the research worker to go through on or to keep back it. Semi-structured interviewing is suited when research workers have a one off clip to carry on the interview ( they do n’t hold another opportunity to make so ) and peculiarly when the interviewer wants to go forth both him/herself and the respondent “ to follow new leads ” ( Bernard, 2011, p. 158 ) when this becomes necessary. In semi-structured interviewing there is an interview usher, dwelling of a list of inquiries or subjects that are relevant to the research job and which need to be covered during the interviews with the respondents. There are non sequenced or standardized inquiries required to be answered in a specific format or in a specific manner ; there are unfastened ended inquiries or subjects, which trigger more like a treatment between the interviewer and the respondent ( Bernard, 2011 ) . For the present survey the undermentioned list of subjects was used for the semi-structured interviews ( non needfully in this order, but changing harmonizing to the advancement of each of the interviews ) : ( a ) how the hotel understands and perceives the green schemes, ( B ) what are the chief green patterns and how these are reflected in the schemes of the hotel ( degree Celsius ) how and if green patterns have an consequence in the fight and by and large the public presentation of the hotel, ( vitamin D ) what are the chief drivers for following green strategies/ patterns, ( vitamin E ) which are the chief obstructions or troubles that hinder the acceptance of green patterns and schemes, ( degree Fahrenheit ) are the green patterns necessary to respond to the environmental tendencies or to beef up the sustainable patterns of the hotels.
The most of import advantage of the semi-structured interviewing is that the interviews with the respondents can develop or come on in ways that the research worker had non in progress determined and this can add to the farther cognition over the research job ( Punch, 2005 ) . Semi-structured interviews aid research workers maintain control due to the fact that they entail scheduled subjects or inquiries, but they can besides go forth the respondents lead the treatment when their experience and cognition is more critical and can supply extra apprehension of the research job ( Bernard, 2011 ) . Furthermore, semi-structured interviewing helps research workers become focused on the job but at the same clip it opens up possibilities for look intoing more of the research job. Alternatively, a critical disadvantage of the semi-structured interviewing is that it rests excessively much on the ability of the interviewer to stay focussed on the research job and avoid being carried off by the treatment for case in roll uping informations that are non relevant to the job. However, this peculiar disadvantage was non an issue in the present survey given that in all interviews the research worker managed to maintain the treatment focused on the list of subjects.
3.3.2 Sample and Access
The survey for the green patterns and green schemes in Greece has been carried out by look intoing the cordial reception industry and more specifically some Grecian hotels. The sample that has been used in the research includes twelve different hotels in the state and the interviews were carried out with either the proprietors of the hotels ( in the instance of independent little hotels ) or with hotel directors ( in the instance of concatenation hotels or big hotels in the state ) . The sample includes both independent and concatenation hotels, every bit good as both little and big houses. In fact eight of the hotels are independent little – medium houses and four of the hotels belong to larger ironss ( two of them belong to international ironss ) . This was really of import for the research because it helped the research worker deliver two aims: ( a ) to demo any possible differences attributed to size ( as this has been implied in the reappraisal of literature, where little hotels are influenced for illustration by the personal values and ethical stance of the proprietor every bit good as the determination doing being simple and non based on too-many managerial degrees ) and ( B ) to demo once more any possible differences attributed to the capacity and capableness of hotels in following green schemes which might be relevant to the hotel being portion of a larger concatenation or being independent ( presuming that concatenation hotels ‘ patterns may be influenced from other factors such as international patterns etc ) .
Sing the size of the sample ( 12 hotels ) , although it is instead little, it complies with the recommendations for qualitative research and the rules of the phenomenology, which suggest that the focal point is placed on little samples because the intent is to research in depth alternatively of mensurating. The sample was non defined from the beginning of the survey, but it was generated on the footing of two beginnings: foremost some of the hotels accepted to be included in the sample chiefly due to the fact that the writer personally knows the gatekeepers ( hotel proprietors largely ) and 2nd some of the hotels positively replied to be included in the sample when the writer reached them and suggested them to be portion of the survey. In the get downing the writer had communicated with a sum of 50 hotels ( either through personal friendly relationships or through merely making the houses ) but merely twelve were finally gathered.
The interviews were carried out with the individuals that have the most experience and cognition on the green issues of the hotels or the individuals that are responsible for the determinations over the acceptance of green patterns and schemes. This was done to do certain that the information and the information that would be gathered would be believable and valid. Credibility and cogency are two critical facets in qualitative research and they are much determined by the proper design of the sample and the research instrument ( Bernard, 2011 ) .
3.3.3 Research Operationalization
The research operationalization has to make with the process and the execution of the interviews with the respondents. All interviews were done face -to- face except for one interview which was made through the telephone. This peculiar interview was with a hotel director of one of the hotels belonging to a larger concatenation and it was implemented through the telephone due to the fact that the respondent could non run into in individual with the research worker. This was non a job and the interview proceeded swimmingly.
The staying 11 interviews were carried out in July 2012 and in the early August 2012. With each of the respondents, assignments at the hotels ‘ central office or the hotels ‘ location were arranged. The respondents had been ab initio informed on the topic of the research survey and the purpose of the research worker and had been explained of the grounds why their cognition, sentiment, perceptual experience and position were critical for the research. Furthermore, the respondents had been informed prior to the interviews about the major subjects that would be covered every bit good as about the chief inquiries in the research docket. This was done for two intents: foremost, to familiarise the hotelkeepers and the hotel directors with the research job that the research would cover with and 2nd, to do certain that they were to the full informed about the topics so that they could willingly take portion ( to accomplish transparence ) .
The interviews with all the respondents were scheduled to last at most half an hr and this was pre-agreed with the hotelkeepers and the hotel directors. In none of the instances the clip exceeded the pre-scheduled agreements. Sing the recording of the interviews, the respondents were asked if they wished to be tape recorded but none replied positively and for this ground the writer tried to carefully compose down during the interview the most of import points and after the interview write down the majority of informations ( so as to do certain that the informations would non be distorted in instance of clip passing by ) .
3.3.4 Ethical motives for the Research Study
The research survey did non interrupt any ethical codification of behaviors throughout the procedure of the interviews with the respondents. The writer is cognizant and to the full acknowledges the importance of the ethical values and the ethical criterions that the research needs to follow with and for this ground, all appropriate patterns and actions were undertaken. Harmonizing to Saunders et Al. ( 2009 ) the research moralss reflect the ethical and appropriate behavior of the research workers in respects to the rights of the people who constitute the ‘subject ‘ of the survey. With this in head and with the devotedness to the ethical rules, the research worker made all necessary stairss in order to demo a behavior that respected the rights of the respondents. These stairss included: informing them in progress of the interview inquiries, inquiring them in progress whether they wished to be taped or non ( and esteeming their negative response ) , non seeking in any manner to maltreat them during the interviews and non seeking to pull strings their responses ( the information that they provided ) in order to suit any possible coveted set of findings ( on the portion of the research worker ) . In add-on to that, esteeming the right of the respondents for namelessness, the research survey does non mention to any of the names of the interviewees but besides does non mention to any of the hotel trade names so as to do certain that information can non be linked to specific individuals.
Chapter Four: Research Consequences
4.1 Introduction to the Analysis of the Research Results
Transporting out the research generated informations relevant to the green schemes and environmental patterns employed by the hotels that were studied. The information has been gathered, set together and analyzed in the mode of achieving the undermentioned aims:
analyzing how hotels perceive green schemes and placing what constitutes green patterns in a hotel ‘s operational environment
analyzing the extent to which Greek hotels employ green patterns and associate these to significant benefits and competitory advantage ( using a green scheme )
analyzing the perceptual experiences of the hotels in respects to the factors that promote them to follow green schemes or instead in respects to the factors that hinder the acceptance of such schemes and patterns
The thesis ‘s last nonsubjective ( doing recommendations in footings of green patterns in the hotel and cordial reception services sector ) is derived from the analysis of the above three and it is analyzed in the 6th chapter of the thesis ( Recommendations ) . In this chapter, the writer trades with the first three aims, which are straight associated with the informations collected by questioning the hotelkeepers and the hotel directors of the 12 hotels.
4.2 Hotels ‘ perceptual experience of green schemes and hotels ‘ operationalization of green patterns
The perceptual experiences of the hotelkeepers and the hotel directors over the green schemes and by and large their consciousness of environmental direction systems are so critical issues because they reveal their apprehension of the green orientation foremost, and they show the grade in which they believe that green schemes and environmental patterns are necessary.
The hotelkeepers and the hotel directors of the 12 hotels of the survey showed that their perceptual experience over green schemes is strongly positive. Generally they appear to see green schemes as a response to one of the most of import jobs of the today ‘s universe and they besides appear to believe that the green schemes and the environmental direction systems are intensively related to the concern behaviors. All twelve respondents seemed enthusiastic about the critical function that the green orientation of companies dramas in continuing the environment and in prolonging environmental resources. The affair of size and the affair of belonging to a concatenation or being an independent hotel was non a distinguishing factor in this issue. The undermentioned quotation marks illustrate the general positive stance towards sustainability:
“ Environmental schemes are cardinal in today ‘s universe, where the job of environmental impairment and the planetary heating threatens all people. [ aˆ¦ ] Such schemes are of import in the domain of the concern conducts every bit good because concerns ‘ impacts on the environment are tremendous ” ( quote from a hotelkeeper