According to Jonathan Pat, with the John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Sari Kvass, with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, “Populations in warmer regions tend to be sensitive to low temperatures, and populations in colder climates are sensitive to heat…… Mortality is primarily due to cardiovascular, cardiovascular, and respiratory’ disease’ (Pratt and Kvass 2). Heat waves are more prominent in areas Of growing cities where vegetation has been replaced my concrete, asphalt, tar roofs, and other “heat retaining surfaces (Pratt and Kvass 2).
A rise in temperature increases photochemical smog which can intensify asthma and allergies. Pratt and Kvass also go on to say that mortality increases when temperatures are at extremes. Their most compelling example is the heat wave of Chicago in 1995 which caused the deaths of 514 people. Pratt and Kvass claim that a rise in Earth’s temperature has significant effect on mortality. According to Thomas Gale Moore, a senior at the Hoover Institution, warmer climates are unlikely to create a rise heat-related deaths. He mentions a point made by Science Magazine that “people adapt….
One doesn’t see large numbers of cases of heat stroke in New Orleans or Phoenix, even though they are much warmer than Chicago” (Moore 4). In other words, people adjust to the difference in climate. Moore states that no evidence exists proving that a rise in temperature truly increases mortality rates. He agrees the stresses of heat can increase mortality, but usually affects the sick or elderly who’s lives had just a short time left. In fact, he points out that there are more deaths due to cold temperatures than hot. For example, in the year 1 988 there were 132 deaths from heat and 385 deaths from cold (Moore 5).
In Moor’s opinion heat does not increase mortality. Another concern that pat and Kvass have is the rise of sea level and flooding. They give examples of their concern by the following statements: “heavy precipitation can more readily cause dangerous flooding in areas denuded of forest. Localized warming can be intensified in sprawling cities through the “urban heat island” effect. The impact of increases in extreme rainfalls will be exacerbated by impervious road surfaces and inadequate drainage, making cities more prone to flooding’ (Pratt and Kvass 2).
Flooding has many dangers such as injury, or drowning. Flooding can also upset freshwater aquifers and drainage of sewage and storm water. Affecting sanitation and insect populations. Drinking contaminated water can cause cholera, dysentery, or other diseases. Increased insect populations can contribute to Malaria and dengue fever (Pratt and Kvass 3). Pratt and Kvass point o that flooding caused by global warming is a danger to human health. Moore gives an interesting view of how global warming affects weather. He states “warming is most likely to be greatest near the poles and less at the equator.
The strength of weather systems is actually a factor of the differential in temperatures between the two regions. Since this differential will diminish, so too will the likelihood of more intense cyclones” (Moore 5). In other words, the danger of extreme storm which could cause damage and flooding will actually reduce with the warming of the Earth. Pratt and Kvass id that water pollution can be caused by the heavy rainfall thought to be caused by global warming. This heavy rainfall and runoff from farms, human waste, and dumps of toxic material can pollute water.
Drinking contaminated water can cause cholera, dysentery, or other diseases (Pratt and Kvass 3). However, Moore suggests that water has never been cleaner. He goes on to say, “With or without climate change, public sanitation should be emphasized as most effective means of attacking water- and insect born diseases everywhere” (Moore 4). Along with flooding, disease may become a problem, according to Pratt and Kvass. Flooding can help increase the population of insects such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. These arthropods can spread diseases such as malaria and dengue fever (Pratt and Kvass 4).
Forced migration caused by flooding could overwhelm good sanitation practices creating a breeding ground for many different types of disease (Pratt and Kvass 3). Moore, however, points out that infectious diseases only contribute 1 percent of all deaths. With the development of good sanitation practices and education this threat can be reduced even more. In fact, he points out that flooding may not even be the biggest risk of diseases such as malaria and ensue fever. Government efforts to preserve the wetlands may contribute more to the insect population.
These swamps are a great environment for the mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas (Moore 4). Pat and Kvass acknowledge another concern with drought and malnutrition. They believe the impacts of global warming will impact food resources due to increased heat that can cause droughts and lead to famine. If a poor area was unable to import food, populations would parish from hunger (Pratt and Kvass 3). They express this in the following quote, “The JINN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects a reduction in crop yields in most tropical and subtropical regions by mid-continental droughts.
Some crops in tropical location would be decimated because many are already grown in climate conditions near their maximum temperature tolerance” (Pratt and Kvass 3). Moore does not agree that global warming will impact food resources negatively. He insists that the worlds food supply has actually increased, and population growth has slowed, causing a decline of people who are undernourished (Moore 3). He then goes on to say, “History demonstrates that warmer is healthier. Since he last Ice Age, the earth has enjoyed two periods that were warmer than the twentieth century.
Archaeological evidence shows that people live longer, enjoyed better nutrition, and multiplied more rapidly in warm periods than during epochs of cold….. (Moore 6)”. So in his view the warmer climate will actually help with food scarcities. Pratt and Kvass see the effects of global warming differently than Moore. Pratt and Kvass insist temperature increase could be the cause of heat waves, the rising sea levels, flooding, drought, malnutrition, water pollution, and spread of disease. Both agree the Earth’s temperature is rising.