Evaluate the current level of understanding of Events Impact and Events Stakeholder Management and how they integrate into the events management process (MEME) Although the event management has only been put forward into in-depth study and many theories in the last two decades by professional scholars and become a professional discipline, it has continually been affected by changes in societies or environment over a period of time and has long since become an integral and indispensable part of our lives.
The importance of the event industry also can’t be disregarded.The events industry has grown at an average pace of 6. % each year globally since 2003 and is projected to grow 5. 5% per year through 2011. The I-J events sector contributes around EYE. 1 billion in year 2008 to the economy and is forecast to grow to EYE. 4 billion by 2020 (Publishing Executive, 2008).
As a matter of fact, we need to further investigate into the current understanding of events using the theoretical and practical methods as well as academic researches and industry examples to analyze the key components such as impacts and stakeholders during the management of an event.The definitions of events have been discussed by scholars and many authors in different perspectives. To start with looking at the terminology of events under the academic scope, The Chambers Dictionary (1998, p. 560) refers events as anything that happens; contingency or possibility of occurrence or an organized activity at a particular venue (Bowdon, et. Al, 2011).
According to the definition provided by Donald Get (2007): “An event is an occurrence at a given period of time; a celebration or display of some theme to which the public is invited for a limited time only.It can also be an occasion such as a business meeting, convention, exhibition, special event, etc. As events can be defined as an occurrence, it is often combine of several different functions but at the same time related to one another (Get, 2005, p. 16). Hence the main target audiences of an event may exist and therefore most of the events are carried out with a purpose of reaching the customers or audiences’ goals. With the human aspect of events, it’s an unique moment of a lifetime, celebrated with ceremony and ritual to satisfy a person’s special need (Gladiolas, 2008, p. ). We can also infer that events are packages organized to provide, reach and set interaction between the target audience and the linens’ desire and therefore create spiritual or emotional connection between participants and activities.
The events can also be learned as political and cultural mainstream which comes in different types and shapes (Roberts, 2004, p. 108-120), common categories are local or community events, major events, hallmark events and mega events (Bowdon, et. L, 2011). Minor or local events can be understood as neighborhood activities such as garden parties or neighborhood carnivals or festivals which contains social, fun and entertainment value. While major events are referring o regional or national gatherings resemble to sports events or music festivals or cultural gatherings. They are capable of attracting significant visitors, media coverage and also economic and social benefits (Bowdon, et.
Al, 2011).Take Windblown as an example, it’s one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments (Majors) in the world, which takes place over two weeks in late June and early July in England and attracts international prestige and media attention. The term hallmark events on the other hand refers to the events that become synonymous with the name of the place or city ND gain a significant recognition. Classic examples of hallmark events are like ROI Carnivals or Edinburgh International Festival in Scotland.
They generate huge tourists and sense of local pride, accruing to Get (2005, p. 6-17), they provide a competitive advantage for their host communities. Mega events are at global scale such as Olympics or FIFE World Cup. As to the typology of the events, it can be categorized into areas like private functions, political and state events, sports and recreation events, art and entertainment, business events and cultural celebrations (Get, D 2012). Although there’s such a wide range of methods of how to define an event under the academic scope, the boundaries between one and another has become blurred due to the constantly changing environment and technology in recent years.
Some events have swift its position from a simple local event into a national or world phenomenon. The Edinburgh Winter Festival for example was a local event which only around 20,000 people involved around the Trot Kirk to celebrate the New Year’s Eve and the only management influence in the event was the local police force. But in the year of 2013, the Edinburgh Winter Festival was visited by over 2. Million people over the six-week season of festive entertainment.The development of the event enlarges the gap between the academic definition and the practical reality and as the scale of the event grows, it involve more stakeholders and impacts toward the society and the environment and therefore assessing events through their impacts creates conflicts with an event’s typology. But what are the events impacts? People who experience the outcomes of events feel ‘impacted’, and the economy is also ‘impacted’ by changes related to the event (Get, 2012). The events impacts are usually be defined by scholars into socio-cultural, environmental and economical factors (Hall, 1997).
They may come in both positive and negative ways ( Bowdon, 2006). And by defining who is being impacted there are three distinct aspects: personal, external and organizational. They may happen before, during or after the event has come to an end (Hillier, 1998). By evaluating the impact can the event managers create an event management plan and turn it into the events management’s team’s asset and therefore make a positive contribution to the event management process. (Barton, 2014). And naturally these are the key elements of whether the event is going to be a success or not.Take the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games for an example, Beijing organized the Olympic Games with the slogan, “Green Olympics, Hi-tech Olympics and People’s Olympics”.
The Chinese government spent $17 billion on the prepare of the city for the games, which included closing down factories and limiting automobile traffic (CBS News, 2012), they removed 60,000 taxis and buses from the roads and 200 heavily polluting factories were moved out of the city (Lee M. Sands, 2008) and therefore provide a healthier atmosphere for the athletes and the citizens.New research by an international team of scientists led by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) indicates that China’s restrictions on motor vehicles had the side benefit of dramatically cutting emissions of carbon dioxide by 24,000 to 96,000 metric tons (Andy Coos, EN, 2012). On the other hand it also created a socio-cultural benefits to the society by arising the people’s awareness of the pollution issue in the city, this has created a greater will of the society to attack the problem. (Lee M.Sands, 2012) While some of the impact that narrated from the 2008 Beijing Olympic was positive to the environment and the society, negative impacts comes along if the event is not carefully been evaluated.
On 15 April 1989, 96 Liverpool fans were crushed to death and hundreds more injured on the steel-fenced terraces of Sheffield Wednesday’s stadium during the year’s FAA Cup semi-final. It was the police to be blamed for their failure to handle the build-up of fans outside the ground properly, and their slow reaction to the unfolding disaster (BBC news, 2009).Within the next 10 years after the disaster some people were now to have committed suicide, several others had spent years in psychiatric care and numerous cases of alcoholism and drug abuse were also attributed to the lingering effects (Wisped, Hillsboro Disaster). Some of the impacts are tangible while others are intangible, we need to also keep an eye on the intangible impacts such as the event attendee’s experiences or feelings because they are harder to manage and identify (Barton, 2014).The socio-cultural impacts are unquantifiable and subjective (Raja ; Engrave), the challenge of the event managers is to hang those intangibles into tangibles in order to be evaluated. Furthermore, the impacts are now being influence by the social media and the cutting-edge technology. Social medias allow stakeholders (attendees) to interact directly in time with the events and they can greater distribute the information of the event to broader audiences Nonhuman, 2012).Although the impacts come in three different aspects, an event usually covers more than two areas of the impacts, we cannot measure them separately.
Most of the impacts of the event are caused by people, and it consequently linking to the stakeholders. As a result, the understanding of the stakeholders relationship has become more and more important to impact management. The stakeholders involved strongly with the events because they are the people, group or organization who can be positively or negatively impacted by or cause an impact on the actions or activities (Submarines, 2009).The stakeholders can be defined as two different groups: primary or secondary stakeholders. They are defined on the basis of nature of engagement and on the basis of impact they have on the event that is taken place. For example the government, the council or the tizzies and the sponsors are the primary stakeholders. Primary stakeholder groups are deemed essential to events as without them the event cannot happen or cannot take place and therefore they need to be well managed.
For example in Taiwan, Shunning, The Rainbow Bay Festival started three years ago as a small regional event in the city, but now it’s already recognized as the biggest music festival in Asia and has benefit the local community by drawing in tourists and increasing the local’s income. But during this year’s event, one of the sponsors- Harley Davidson Taipei Taiwan had distracted and taken over the show and made the performance time of the show reduced by 40 minutes.Under the pressure of the furious fans, the organizer decided to fully accept the fans refund but it still leads to a significant loss and a negative reputation on the Shunning City Government. The stakeholders can also be known as the internal stakeholders and the external stakeholders.
The internal stakeholders are such as the event director, event organizers, site managers, health & safety managers, project managers, etc. Yet the external stakeholders re exhibitors, audiences, local communities, volunteers and performers, etc.The larger the event is, the more the stakeholders are involved (Bowdon, 2006) and they will likely to have compliments or complaint toward the event..
With stakeholders relationship, if any elements lessens or increases their event involvement, the balance in the stakeholders relationship will change (Robinson et al, 2010). Community involvement sometimes comes in with a value of word-of-mouth, therefore the medium of communication remains the most powerful element of the event promotion.In fact the social media has undoubtedly revolutionized and is changing the events landscape and they allow for greater distribution of information to broader audiences Nonhuman, 2013). It enlarges the event’s scale and therefore make the events harder to be controlled. But somehow by managing the media can the event managers to withhold the information and therefore control the market of the event.
As the impacts and the stakeholders work with each other and can’t be analyzed separately, the events manager’s goal is to combine the two key players into the event management process.The event management process is a timeline where the managers create an event management plan through the classification and the pronunciation of the impacts whether they are positive or negative and through defining who the main stakeholders are before they make a decision. In this way can the event managers get the opportunity to look through all the benefits and the weaknesses that are involved and to try changing the weakness and threats into strengths and opportunities.If you eliminate or ignore the threats during the framework, the event management process may become weaker (Silver, 2013). For example, if the nearby residents of the International Music Festival are keep complaining about the loud noises of the construction of the stage that runs late every night but keep being ignore, they may ended up raising a protest demonstration to the event and in the end suspending the event from moving on.
Thus, the continuing process of evaluating the event is needed (Bladed et al, 2012).For example, as part of the investigating and planning of the event, the manager may need to seek for the permission of the city council to further get the license and start the work. After knowing the time when they can get the license, they can outline all the essential decisions/activities in a time sequential order like when to communicate with the sponsors or residents and how to get the resources from the moment of having the permission and in the end create a perfect event management plan.In conclusion, the understanding of event management is growing day by day, and it’s continuously changing and evolving. Overall the event management process is a full integration of the pros and cons of the impacts and the involving of the internal and external stakeholders. They are the sources of information that events managers use to interpret and respond to the sequence of events they experience. Throughout the stages of the event management process, by following the research phase, the design phase, the planning phase and implementation phase can the event managers have a clearer view on the event itself.Although the definitions of the events, the impacts and the stakeholders in the academic scope and the practical industries are somehow different and hard to name out the specific explanation of them, they are attach to one and another and works in two directions from the impacts to takeovers and also the other way around.
When planning an event, making an all- out effort on examining the main impacts and stakeholders are the most important things that an event manager needs to do.However, sometimes some of the impact is not obvious at the moment, or not constitute a problem to the event managers, such as security issues and terrorist attacks. Although these potential impacts may not be the primary tasks or does not appear to occur in the future, when undergoing the event management process they still need to be considered and get the attention. Otherwise, when the tragedy really happens, there would be more cost and money needed in the future.