This pollution also affects the environment. Like there are many causes for this pollution, there are various side effects of the same on the environment and living beings in it. Some of the biggest effects on the environment are acid rains, which include poisonous gases like sulfuric and nitric acid.
They ix in the water cycle and contaminate drinking water, damage buildings, kill aquatic life and ruin vegetation. Another serious effect, according to the environmental pollution facts is “smog”, which is extremely prevalent in today’s cities. Smog is the combination of smoke and fog and proves to be very harmful for living beings. It is caused due to automobile and industrial pollution, causing various respiratory diseases, fatigue, decreased visual acuity, etc. Temperature also changes and climatic shifts are the most recently observed effects to the environment.
This is also counted in global arming as many major countries and cities are suffering from this deadly hot wave which is growing day by day. Causes of air pollution can be trace to the presence of carbon dioxide as one of the main pollutants present in the air. This is because; although living beings do exhale carbon dioxide this gas is harmful when emitted from other sources, which are caused due to human activities. Research findings showed that an additional release of carbon dioxide happens due to various industries, such as the oil industries and the chemical industries.
However, human activities were also found to add to the increased proportions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The contribution of fossil fuels and the harmful effects of deforestation have all contributed toward the same pollution. Various sources of harmful gases such as carbon monoxide is also produced due to any fuel burning appliance and appliances such as water heaters, fire places, wood stones, gas stones, gas dryers, yard equipment as well as automobile, which add to the increased proportion of this gas into the atmosphere.
The University of Eastern Philippines is not apart from this scenario being affected by this air pollution problem in the society. It is in this context that this study is conducted to evaluate air pollution in the form of air particles. Statement of the Problem This study will be conducted to evaluate the air pollution in the form of airborne particles in the University of Eastern Philippines. Specifically, this study will answer the following questions: 1 . What are the physical characteristics of airborne particles present in the different sources in terms of color and density? 2.
What amount of airborne particle accumulates during sunny condition in morning, noontime, and afternoon in every section? 3. Which section of the University Campus had the most airborne pollution in terms of percentage? Objectives of the Study This study will be conducted to evaluate the airborne pollution in form of air particles in the University Campus. Specifically, this study will pursue the following objectives: 1 . To determine the color and density of airborne particles present in the different sources 2. To compare airborne articles that accumulates during sunny condition in the morning noontime, and afternoon in every section. . To determine which section of the University Campus had the most airborne pollution in terms of regenerate. Significance of the Study Given the characteristics Of air pollutants and valid information Of University of Eastern Philippines Campus, this study is very important. Specifically, the findings of this study will be beneficial to the following: Sensitivity Administrator. The findings of this study will help them identify areas of hazard with due consideration for the contribution of air pollutants transported over long distances. Barraging Residents.
It is hope that result of this study on basic characteristics of the pollution serve as an eye opener for hem to realize the prevalent health problems in the exposed residence. The location of the pollution, the changes in pollution over different weather conditions will provide a general picture of air pollutants. National Government Agencies. The findings of the study will provide vital information and data to government agencies, such as EDEN, ALGAL, POOH, and others. These data will serve as inputs to their policies, programs, and projects.
Scope and Limitation of the Study This research will be conducted in the University of Eastern Philippines, university Town, Northern Samara. An evaluation of air pollution in the form of airborne particles will focused only on its physical characteristics, amount of airborne particle accumulated, sources of airborne particles, and location of most pollution. The physical parameters are colors and density. The amount of airborne particles during sunny condition that accumulates in morning, noontime, and afternoon.
Determinants for sources of airborne particles are vehicles exhaust, home cooking welding shop exhaust, and deforestation. It will also determine which section Of the town had the most airborne pollution. Theoretical Framework This study is anchored to the theory that air pollution undergoes a number f processes that contaminants are released into the air, transported to different locations through air and distribute in air, it maintains in a certain area and deposited in certain areas. Air pollution consists of gases and/or particles. These have a distinct chemical or physical structure, or a distinct effect on human health.
Air pollution is caused by both human and natural sources; from human sources is traffic, agriculture or industry. Traffic is held responsible for one third of greenhouse gas emission. Emissions caused by traffic are mainly those of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and small dust articles. Consumers are also partly responsible for the air pollution, because the products that they use have caused air pollution during their productions and distributions. Secondly, because heating the houses and offices causes chemical release into the air.
Almost every aspect of home life can generate air pollutions. Cooking, cleaning furniture, paints, and pets are just few Of many culprits. When trapped and recalculated with in the home, airborne pollutants accumulate through time. The weather plays an important role in the formation and disappearance of air pollution. This is mainly influence by mind and temperature. Conceptual Framework The dispersion of air pollutants mainly depends on physical processes is air; those of wind and weather, as to how far air pollutants are transported mainly upon particles characteristics.
It is in this context that this study is conceptualize to evaluate air pollution in the form Of air particles in the university of Eastern Philippines. Research Paradigm l. Physical Characteristics 1. 1 Color 1. 2 Density. Weather Condition 1. 1 Sunny Conditional. Time 1. 1 Morning 1. 2 Noontime 1. 3 Afternoon. Sources of Pollutants 1. 1 Vehicle Exhaust 1. 2 Home Cooking 1. Machinery Shops. Percentage I EVALUATION OF AIRBORNE PARTICLES I Definition of Terms The following terms have been conceptually and operationally defined. Evaluation.
The process of examining a subject and rating it, based on its important feature. In this study, it refers to assessment of air pollution in the form of particle monitoring in terms of physical Characteristics, type of weather condition, sources of airborne particles, and location. Air Pollution. Is the introduction of chemical, particulate matter that cause harm or discomfort to human or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment. In this study, this refers to the particulate assessed in the form of airborne particles. Airborne Particle.
These are dust or minute droplets of liquid that are small enough to remain suspended in the air. Density. Is the relation of its mass or weight to its volume. In this study, it is operationally defined as to the number of circles established in the oil smeared index card which serves as instrument in determining the concentration of airborne particles and used to determine the bulkiness of airborne particles. Weather Condition. Is the condition of the atmosphere in one area at a particular time. In this study, it refers to sunny and humid condition of the environment.
Sources of Airborne Particles. It refers theoretically to the pollutants where it came from. Whereas, in this study, it refers to the areas identified where air pollutants are likely to concentrate. Location. This refers theoretically to something happens or is situated. Whereas, in this study, it refers to the identified location where concentration of airborne particles under study is likely to happen. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Related Literature Airborne particles are solids suspended In the air.
The size of the particles is usually described in microns, a metric unit of measure where one micron is one-millionth of a meter. There are large particles, medium-size particles, and small particles. Where large particles falls quickly, medium size particles settles out slowly and small particles falls slowly and takes days to years to settle out of a quiet atmosphere. The smallest particles have the ability to transport compounds into the respiratory tract. Some of these are carcinogenic. The upper respiratory tract stops the largest dust particles.
When they are released into the environment, dust particles can cause acidification and winter smog. Encyclopedia of knowledge, 1999) Air pollutants often have properties that are harmful to the environment. Weather conditions play an important role in the formation and disappearance of air pollution. This is mainly influenced by wind and temperature. Air pollutants can be transported by wind, causing a pollution to spread widely. Rain can remove pollutants from air, causing oil and water pollution. Sunlight can aid the conversion of air pollutants to different substances. Microsoft Incarnate, Encyclopedia) Air pollution has some various sources such as those in the industries, agriculture, and traffic, as well as energy generation. During combustion processes and other production processes, air pollutants are emitted. Some of these substances are not directly damaging to air quality, but will form harmful air pollutants by reactions with other substances that are present in air. Examples of large- scales pollutants are VOCE and small dust particles. When large concentrations of these substances are emitted this negatively affects the ecosystem materials and public health. Anger, E. D. Et. Al. , 2000) Related Studies In the study conducted by Maim Trans and Beyond-Sky Lee entitled “Size Distribution of Airborne Particulate Matter and Associated Metallic”, inducted in Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of LULAS, Korea, 2007, that different sizes and compositions of particles cause different adverse health effects. Larger sizes are easy to eliminate from the respiratory system through coughing, sneezing and swallowing, while particles less than 5 pm can reach the pharynx tract.
Fine particles with a diameter less than 2. 5 pm or ultra-fine particles can travel deep into the lungs with the potential to penetrate tissue and undergo internationalization (Grandmaster, 201 1). Fine particles are not easily removed and can be posited on the respiratory tracks from the body, causing lung and heart problems, particularly if the particles contain toxic components such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (Pass). Inhale particles can also deliver harmful species such as heavy metals to the blood system.
According to Eased Basil, Lars Oleander, Christina Larsson, Enders Johansson, Elf Alfonse, Lifelessness, in their study entitled “A field test study of airborne particles from a running regional train”, I-KITH Machine Design, SE 10044, Stockholm, Sweden(2000) 2-KITH Building Service Engineering, SE 0044, Stockholm(2003), Sweden 3-Bombardier Transportation Sweden ABA, SE-721 73 Vaster(2006), Sweden 4-Stockholm University Applied Environmental Science, SE 106 91 , Stockholm, Sweden (2008), Alfonse  and Basis et al. 3, 4] studied the size and morphology of airborne particles frontiersmen brake pads and brake blocks by simulating real operational conditions on a modified-on-disc machine. Sound et al.  used the same set-up and reported the size and morphology airborne particles from wheel and rail contact. Recently, Sarnia  and Gustafson  have reviewed most of he latest works in the field fond-engine emission from railway traffic based on stationary measurements.
Particle morphology, particle toxicology, particle element composition, PM values and also size of coarse particles were special issues which were investigated by different authors in their stationary measurements. One Of the few published on-board measurements was conducted by Frilled et al. , who reported particle characteristics and emission factors for wear particles from a running Regina train. They investigated particles size in 7 intervals and aimed to investigate 27 elements mongo collected particles.
The curve negotiation effects were not traceable in his work as they used one sampling point that was located between the two coaches. As it has been presented, most of the research on airborne particles was based on measures of the PM value. The PM value is, however, a mass- based criterion. This means that it contains no information of characteristic particle properties that are important from a health effect point of view .
The fact that we are obliged to use an average particle value by operating on the PM with a factor, makes it problematic to evaluate the effect from efferent operating conditions, such as braking, accelerating, and curve negotiation, on the size distribution and material content of the airborne particles that are generated in these cases. The lack of information of the submission sized particles generated by a running train was the main motivation for performing the presented study.
In the study conducted by Guiana Hung entitled “Evaluation of airborne particle emissions from commercial products containing carbon annotates”, from University of Low, 2012. According to his thesis dissertation, Inappropriate (Naps) are objects with all three dimensions smaller than 100 NM. They can be divided into two types: incidental Naps or ultramarine particles, those not produced intentionally (such as particles from combustion); and engineered Naps, those intentionally produced. The properties of engineered Naps can be altered by changing their size, shape, or sugarcoating.
These properties may be quite different from the bulk materials and vary when the particle size changes. Some endometrial can conduct electricity better than copper, while others have strong tensile strength but are light in weight (Smaller, 1999). Due to the unique size of Naps, materialness have a large surface area relative to their ass so that they can interact with other materials. Thus, endometrial incorporating Naps are applied extensively in industries. Cants (carbon annotates) are tiny hollow cylinders ranging in diameter from 0. 4 NM to 2. NM (Alicia, 1991). They have become the major mass-produced materialness (Donaldson et al. R 2006) as a result of their versatility. Due to their unique properties including small dimension, high tensile strength and energy storage capacity, Cants have been widely 2 used to reinforce the matrix in the production of tennis rackets and airplane frame parts (Joann ; Chou, 001). In addition, the application of Cants in polymer composites such as epoxy can enhance the toughness of the composites by absorbing energy during the highly flexible behavior of the polymers.
Due to this property, Cants are applied in ceramic matrix composites (Joann ; Chou, 2001). According to the study of W. C. Noble O. M. Allied and D. Assassination Cross-Infection Reference Laboratory, Central Public Health Laboratory, London, N. W. 1 999 entitled ‘the size distribution of airborne particles carrying microorganisms” that values are given for the median equivalent diameters ND for the intrauterine range, of airborne particles carrying a variety of micro-organisms. Organisms associated with human disease or carriages were usually found on particles in the range 4-20 p equivalent diameter.
Many fungi appeared to be present in the air as single spores. We should like to acknowledge the collaboration of Dry Woven M. Clayton in the collection and examination of the fungal samples. In the study conducted by E. Bat, H. H. Such, G. Allen, and p. Saturator entitled “Characterization of indoor particularities: A study conducted in the metropolitan Boston area”, 2004 hat intensive particle monitoring study was conducted in homes in the Boston, Massachusetts, area during the winter and summer of 1 996 in an effort to characterize sources of indoor particles.
As part of this study, continuous particle size and mass concentration data were collected in four single-family homes, with each home monitored for one or two 6-day periods. Additionally, housing activity and air exchange rate data were collected. Cooking, cleaning, and the movement of people were identified as the most important indoor particle sources in these homes. These sources contributed significantly both to indoor concentrations (indoor-outdoor ratios varied between 2 and 33) and to altered indoor particle size distributions.
In a case study conducted by AS Obdurately entitled “Urban Air pollution Evaluation by Computer Simulation” in Chemical Engineering Department, Federal university of Technology, Mina Niger State, Nigeria, 1 999, The dispersion pattern of the pollutant showed that the extent of dispersion of pollutant in air depends on the wind velocity, humidity and thermal efficiency.
The quality of air with respect to the pollutant measured is unacceptable when compared tit PAPA set limit. In the study conducted by Hafnium, William C Hinds, Commissioning, Is Sheen, Constitutionalists in a Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of California Los Angles, 650 Charles E.
Young Drive South, Los Angles, CA 90095, USA b School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BACK), Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea, c Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, university of Southern California, 3620 South Vermont Avenue, Los Angles, CA 90089, CICS, entitled “Study of ultramarine particles near a major highway with heavy- duty diesel traffic”, 2000 that motor vehicle emissions usually constitute the most significant source of ultramarine particles (diameter pm) in an urban environment. GHz et al. (J. Air Waste Manage. Cassock. 2002, accepted for publication) conducted systematic measurements of the concentration and size distribution of ultramarine particles in the vicinity of a highway dominated by gasoline vehicle. The present study compares these previous measurements with those made on Interstate 710 freeway in Los Angles. The 710 freeway was selected because more than 25% of the vehicles are heavy-duty diesel trucks. Particle number concentration and size distribution in the size range from 6 to 220 NM were measured by a condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle seizer, respectively.
Measurements were taken at 1 7, 20, 30, 90, 150, and 300 m downwind and 200 m upwind from the center of the freeway. At each sampling location, concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and black carbon (BC) were also measured by a Disdain CO monitor and an Telemarketer, respectively. The range of average concentration of CO. BC and total particle number concentration at 17 m was 1. 9-2. 6 pump, 20. 3-24. 8 pig/mm, 1. Xx-3. Xx/com, respectively. Relative concentration of CO, BC and particle number decreased exponentially and tracked each other well as one moves away from the freeway.
Both atmospheric dispersion and coagulation appears to contribute to the rapid decrease in particle number concentration and change in particle size distribution with increasing distance from the freeway. Average traffic flow during the sampling periods was 12, 180 vehicles/h with more than 25% of vehicles being heavy-duty diesel trucks. Ultramarine particle number concentration measured at 300 m downwind from the freeway was indistinguishable from upwind background concentration. These data may be used to estimate exposure to ultramarine particles in the vicinity of major highways.
According to the study of Alistair Thorpe, Roy M. Harrison in Division of Environmental Health & Risk Management, School Of Geography, Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Asbestos, Birmingham BIB TTT, United Kingdom, entitled “Sources and properties of non-exhaust particulate matter from road traffic”, 1 997 that while emissions control regulation has led to a substantial reduction in exhaust emissions from road traffic, currently non-exhaust emissions from road vehicles are unabated.
These include particles from brake wear, tree wear, road surface abrasion and resubmission in the wake of passing traffic. Quantification of the magnitude of such emissions is problematic both in the laboratory and the field and the latter depends heavily upon a knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of non-exhaust particles. This review looks at each source in turn, reviewing the available information on the source materials and particles derived from them in laboratory studies.
In a final section, some of the key publications dealing with measurements in road tunnels and the roadside environment are reviewed. It is concluded that with the exception of brake dust particles which may be identified from their copper (Cue) and antimony (Sub) content, unequivocal identification of particles from other sources is likely to prove extremely difficult, either because of the lack of suitable tracer elements or compounds, or because of the interactions between sources prior to the emission process.
Even in the case of brake dust, problems will arise in distinguishing directly emitted particles from those arising from resubmission of deposited brake dust from the road surface, or that derived from entrainment of polluted roadside soils, either erectly or as a component of road surface dust. In the study conducted by E. Bat, H. H. Such, G. Allen, and P. Saturator entitled “Characterization Of indoor particle sources: A study conducted in the metropolitan Boston area, 2004 that cooking, including broiling/baking, toasting, and barbecuing contributed primarily to particulate matter with physical diameters between 0. 2 and 0. 5 micro with volume median diameters of between 0. 13 and 0. 25 micro. Sources of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters between 0. 7 and 10 micro included saute©ins, cleaning (vacuuming, dusting, and sweeping), and movement of people, with volume Edwina diameters of between 3 and 4. 3 micro. Frying was associated with particles from both and PM((O. 7-10)). Air exchange rates ranged between 0. 12 and 24. 3 exchanges/hrs and had significant impact on indoor particle levels and size distributions.
Low air exchange rates (< 1 exchange/ hrs) resulted in longer air residence times and more time for particle concentrations from indoor sources to increase. When air exchange rates were higher (> 1 exchange/hrs), the impact of indoor sources was less pronounced, as indoor particle concentrations tracked outdoor levels more closely. According to the study of G¶ran L¶froth entitled “Airborne mutagens and carcinogens from cooking and other food preparation processes”, 2001 that common food preparation processes, frying, broiling and baking, can give rise to air pollutants that are known to be antigenic and carcinogenic in animal tests.
A large number of persons can be exposed to such fumes as cooking is performed in most households and in many commercial enterprises. Additional studies on the emissions from these processes and exposure measurements are needed. Epidemiological studies on occupationally-exposed cooks and bakers with respect to cancer are equivocal. According to the study of Summer Awakens entitled “Indoor Air Pollution in Coastal Houses of Southern Philippines”, 2007 from the East-West Center, Honolulu, USA, – Cooking and heating with such solid fuels on open fires or stoves without chimneys leads to indoor air pollution (PAP).
Indoor smoke contains a range of health-damaging pollutants including small soot or dust particles that are able to penetrate deep into the lungs. In poorly ventilated dwellings, indoor smoke can exceed acceptable levels for small particles in outdoor air by 100-fold. Exposure is particularly high among omen and children, who spend the most time near the domestic hearth. Every year, PAP is thought to be responsible for the death of 1. 6 million people. In the Philippines, 23% of the total consumption of energy in 1999 was in the form of traditional fuels.
However, there are hardly any studies in the country that have measured the exposure to PAP in the real settings. Also, worldwide, most of the studies have examined the impact of fuel and stove variables on the levels of pollutants. But only very few have comprehensively examined the role of kitchen and ventilation characteristics on the same. The action of cooking (inside/outside), ventilation through doors and windows and the air flow through building materials are factors that need to be studied seriously as determinants Of concentration levels Of various pollutants.
Similarities and Differences In the study of Maim Trap Ny and Beyond-Sky Lee entitled “Size Distribution of Airborne Particulate Matter and Associated Metallic” focus on identifying different sizes composition of airborne particles in relation to health effects. Similarly to this study looks into the density which account on the sizes of airborne particulates. However, it differ from its scope as it delimit on to horizontally in terms of its density, weather condition, sources and area of concentration whereas in Maim Trap NY, et al study, emphasized specific metallic particle content in the mass of airborne particulates.
In the study of Eased Basis, et al, entitled “A Field Test Study of Airborne Particles from Running Regional Train”, centered on the sources of airborne particles among different running trains. It reviewed on sizes and morphology of airborne particles from bareheaded, pin-on disk machine, and wheel and rail contact in relation to on field non-engine emission from rail way to traffic based dictionary measurement. Parallel to this study, the present investigator will examine the pre-determined sources as to vehicle exhaust, home-cooking, welding shop exhaust and garbage burning but not on the composition of airborne particle.
In the study of Gunman Hung entitled “Evaluation of Airborne Particles Emission from Commercial Product containing Carbon Annotates” examines the degree of denseness of airborne particles containing carbon annotates. In this study, carbon annotates were observed to have large area of concentration relative to its mass so they can interact with other materials. Similarly in the present study, the bulk of concentration is accounted to the surface area occupied in collecting the air particle.
In the study of Gunman, it uses condensation Particle counter and Scanning mobility particle sizes to determine the density of airborne particle containing Carbon Annotates. However in the present study, same variable of density is examined but a simple improvised index cards smeared with petroleum jelly and placed in designated sources of airborne particles will be used. In the study conducted by Y fang Chug, et al, entitled “Study of Ultramarine Particles ear Major Highways with Heavy Duty Diesel Traffic”, examined the systematic measurement of concentration.