Site Loader

A nation is a physical entity with its people representing it. Its strength is actually its people confidence and belief in their nation. It’s the number of quality institutes which shows how much advancement the nation has made in higher and primary level education. In the same way, a country with better performance on health index shows how much it is strong on social ground. To tackle all issues of health and medication, a country needs a health care system. The two most important forms of a health care system are Aesculapius and Hygeia. Aesculapius is a disease centric model and has been developed with a simple logic that it’s the medicine which can cure all sorts of human health related problems i.e., healing is the only to health.Hygeia is very much different. It focuses on public health. According to theory of Hygeia health care model, health of an individual is very much dependent on its surroundings. It’s just like a healthy mind residing in a healthy body giving way to the logic that a healthy body requires a clean and healthy environment. If medicine is the reason behind all sorts of healing and life saving processes in the same way Hygiene is an art of prolonged life (Jackson, 1860, p. 543). No matter how much advancement humans make in medical science, hygiene or prevention will always be better than cure that is treatment.  Curing disease is very important but the process of prevention has its own importance because of the philosophy that avoiding the occurrence of the disease is not only important for an individual but also for the whole society.US health care systemUS health care system is an Aesculapius based health care system. It is very much individual centric with emphasis being paid on different healing techniques. It is considered as best if we consider the freely available medical technology and state of the art facilities it provides its citizens (Chua, 2006, p.1). Actually the system in US is a disease care system (U. S. Department of Health and Human Resources [USDHHR], 2003). The patient is given importance on the basis of disease it is suffering and the medical facilities it will have to avail to get itself cured (National Governors Association [NGA], 2005, p. 9). Despite all these, it is being argued that America doesn’t provide health care services to all of its citizens (The University of Maine [UM], 2001. p.3).The health sector is emphasizing more on palliative techniques (Neuberger, 2003, p. 207). US citizen have insurance coverage through the Employer Based Health Insurance System (Glied, 2005, p. 38). This system was started as an incentive by employers during World War II for attracting workers to work for them. The government’s policy of providing tax exemption in lieu of premium paid for the insurance coverage promoted this practice (Glied, 2005, p. 38). In the long run it was found that private job-based coverage offers a viable mechanism with very quick response to ever changing heath care system (Glied, 2005, p. 43). But the major drawback of this system was that this job based voluntary private insurance system left more than forty million Americans uninsured. It never provided coverage to workers with low income or to those who are disabled and have few technical skills (Glied, 2005, p. 44). The so called high technology in medical sector is there for paying customers not for the whole of US and its common citizens.UK health care systemThe UK has a central health care system with National Health Services in existence since 1948 (European Observatory on Health Care Systems [EOHCS], 1999, p. 5). Its main principle was that it’s the state which should hold the responsibility of all health related issues and it should made all facilities available at the time of need without any charge (EOHCS, 1999, p. 5). Since Health and medical facilities are provided by the government. What they provide is personal care (Bell, 2006, p.9). The meaning given to “personal care” in the Regulation of Care (Scotland) Act (2001):… ‘personal care’ means care which relates to the day to day physical tasks and needs of the person cared for (as for example, but without prejudice to that generality, to eating and washing) and to mental processes related to those tasks and needs (as for example, but without prejudice to that generality, to remembering to eat and wash). (Regulation of Care [Scotland] Act [2001])The system doesn’t wait fort the people to get sick and then providing them the available facilities and medical access but actually takes care of its much before the period where it is assumed that the person will be in great need of personal care and mental counseling. This model is basically a Hygeia based one because of its nature which revolves around public health with personal touch so that life can be prolonged with best possible health condition (Jackson, 1860, p. 545). The existence of Community Health Councils (CHCs) with a purpose of making link between the NHS and the community underlines that the system is Hygeia based. These councils before health authorities think of making any variation is the services which are currently been provided. They also act as a messenger of people with continuously updating NHS about people need (EOHCS, 1999, p. 22).The better systemWhat US gives and spends over its citizens is highest among all developed nation (NGA, 2005). But still when its performance on health care index is compared with other nations of OECD, it is laggard on all sub indexes (USDHHR, 2003, p.2). The rising costs have caused evasive action. Number of people putting off medical treatment is on rise. Almost 25 percent of insures and 49 percent in case of uninsured people have avoided medical treatment (Gary, 2004). Rising cost of health insurance premiums and the risk of losing job and then the insurance coverage have caused more worry. And more than 62 percent are now looking for Universal Health Care System (Gary, 2004). But in UK, the condition is just the opposite. NHS and health councils in UK have achieved great success through this way of care and medication (EOHCS, 1999, p. 22). The personal care policy has helped in prolonging life and hence life expectancy in UK is better than that of US (BBC, 2004). Their Hygeia based public health care model considers prevention as a deterrent to all disease or epidemic. People are being cared according to their physical and mental need. Their all abilities and disabilities are closely monitored. Health is not an individual’s entity but a right of the society. Society is being made aware of power of prevention and maintaining Hygiene.The better you live the healthier you are is the only motto of this very system. This Universal Health Care System provides free health care services to its citizens irrespective of the cost incurred (Pollock, 2003). But some measures taken by the government with the motive of cost cutting and enhancing efficiency, made a considerable change in the way NHS should function. The introduction of PFI (Private Finance Initiative) plan was revolutionary and turned out to be very profitable but its contribution to the public go on reducing. The high cost of maintaining a PFI hospital caused 30 percent reduction in number of beds and almost 25 percent reduction in money allocated for clinical staff. And the number of beds available for the common public got reduced by 12,000 since 1997. The NHS is no longer a common people’s entity (Pollock, 2003).In the same way Private Health Insurance model of US has been very successful in providing services to paying customers (Glied, 2005, p. 43). But at the same time it was unable to provide insurance coverage to people who belong to lower income group. At the same time maintaining the current health care system will cost US more than $2 trillion (USDHHR, 2003). Despite spending great amount money of health and medical technology, the US is not getting the desired result. Total spending in this model is about 15% of the GDP of the nation but the performance has been dismal. Average life expectancy in other OECD countries like Japan, Iceland and Spain is better that of U.S. This is where UK’s NHS based model appears to be more important.This model is extremely cost effective if we consider health services as the responsibility of the government and compare it with private insurance coverage of each individual. Its policy of incorporating Prevention in people’s lifestyle yields better results at a much lower cost. A universal health policy is concerned more with nationwide implementation of new techniques of prevention and information exchange. Since, chronic diseases are the most common and costly, they can better be put at bay by prevention. Tremendous achievements in health are possible if the health sector focuses mainly on risk factor like smoking and drinking rather than finding ways to cure the effect caused due to the use of these products. After all it’s the Hygiene which prolongs the life.

Post Author: admin

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

x

Hi!
I'm Tamara!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out