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1.  Knowing about the fundamental attribution error is helpful, yet committing it is almost irresistible.  In a school play I attended recently, a talented 10-year-old girl convincingly played the part of a bitter old woman-so convincingly that, although I reminded myself of the fundamental attribution error, I still assumed that the young actress was a typecast because she was well-suited for the part.  Meeting her one time at a birthday party, I discovered she actually has a very pleasant disposition.  I then remembered that several months earlier I had seen her play the part of a charming 10-year-old in another school play.  Perhaps, most of us, have surely committed the fundamental attribution error such as when we try to explain our own behavior, we are sensitive to how our behavior changes with the situations we encounter.  When explaining other’s behavior, particularly after observing them in only one type of situation, we often commit the fundamental attribution error.  We tend to disregard the situation and leap to unwarranted conclusions about their personality traits.  We do so partly because our attention focuses on the person more than on the situational context.  Meanwhile, the person’s` own attention focuses more on the situation to which he or she is reacting.2.  My boyfriend’s team has just won an important soccer game, and his coach told them that without his brilliant coaching in the few key moments in the game, they would have lost it. He attributed the team’s victory to himself.  But following an important loss, however, he suggests that the condition of the field hampered his players, and furthermore, the officiating was terrible.  These attributions follow the pattern of the self-serving bias that is, taking more personal credit for the success than for failure.  Even most of us, we are more likely to attribute “winning” to our own personal characteristics, such as personality or motivation, and to attribute “losses” to external factors, such as the opponent’s effort. Moreover, in my experience, personal attributions following success presumably help maintain the positive feelings associated with self-esteem.  Situation attributions following failure, on the other hand, serve to reduce the negative feelings associated with personal failure.  Hence, the self-serving bias leads to attributions designed to win approval from others through presenting oneself in the most positive light.3.  When I was in high school, my mother would often say that perhaps “I’m a late bloomer” as compared to my other siblings.   It was actually the guidance councilor who said that to her according to the intelligence test I took.  In addition, she told me that I would increase in intelligence when I will be in my last year in high school.  So, at the end of my high school year, I showed a significantly greater increase in intelligence than my classmates who were not told that they were “late bloomers.” So perhaps, I based my academic performance to the expectations of my mother.  Such assumptions have an impact on my study skills and habits.  My behavior towards learning, in turn, may affect my motivation to study.    My mother’s expectations for my academic performance may have a very strong effect on what I do in the classroom, as well as on the different tasks expected of me.  This effect appears to be an example of a self-fulfilling prophecy at work.4.  One summer vacation, my family and a close neighbor family had an outing, fishing.  Well, I do not like fishing, especially winding fishing reel (I hate it).  Father had us; boys versus girls (by pair) wind a fishing reel several times.  Alas, I found out that my performance has improved in competition.  But in another contest, the individual fishing part, father was not around and the others are nowhere in sight, I tend to lose motivation to get a fish.   Now I realized that a social context, such as competition with another person, may alter behavior.   This improvement in performance that took place while working in a group is social facilitation.  It was the specific awareness of being observed that facilitated my performance. It is likely that I did better in the presence of others because I want to look good in their eyes.5.  I have always known my mother as an altruistic person. There was one time in the bank where mother was lining up to withdraw money.  She noticed that an old Asian woman was very anxious to get to the teller. They just had a short talk and mother allowed the woman to cut in front though we were also in a hurry.  Mother exhibited what I’ve known in class as the prosocial behavior or also known as altruism. She’s always like that.  Her behavior always benefits others, especially those who are in need.

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