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The United States has long been known for the immigrants who flee to its shores to build a new life. Some are escaping tyranny; others are leaving dismal livings conditions and extreme poverty. Whatever the reason, the United States has been a refuge for hundreds of years to almost every nationality in the world. When terrorism took the twin towers down and thousands of lives with it, everything changed.This is an issue that I feel is very important in regards to American culture as we know it. The fact that most of the United States is made up of people who, in one generation or another, came here from another country makes us the “melting pot” of the world. That open door policy is now being threatened due to certain groups who would jeopardize human life in pursuit of power. This is an issue that affects all people in one way or another and this includes those who are US citizens.Immigration has always been an issue within the United States. The Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) has been under constant criticism for either being too harsh or being too lenient, depending on the issue. Laws are always changing and there are calls for amnesty. Illegal aliens sneaking across the border is not a new issue and many risk their lives to get into the US, only to be deported and try again.When the September 11th attack occurred, it took everyone by surprise. It was not just that the attack happened on US soil; it was that we had allowed these terrorists to enter the country for educational purposes. These were not the shabby people the media shown sneaking over the border. These were English speaking, average looking, college kids who said they wanted a better education than was offered in their native country.The cry for reform of the current immigration policies was immediate. Suddenly people saw terrorists everywhere and violence escalated based on ethnicity. While some laws were passed to protect the American citizens, others had to be passed to protect those immigrants who were in the country simply to make a better life.Some immigration policy changes have already been implemented while others are yet to be realized, but the changes continue to be proposed as each new fear or threat possibility arises.One of the major changes in US immigration policy has been in regards to foreign students and visitors to the United States. This new rule, effective once it is published in the Federal Register, effects students who want to study in the US, travelers coming to the States for pleasure or business and person who have ordered deported.Students must have confirmation that they have been accepted into a US school before entering the country. Anyone already in the country cannot apply to attend unless they first return to their native country and apply from there.Tourists and business travelers will be limited to 30 days in the country or the predefined amount of time needed to finish their trip. The maximum extended stay would be shortened from one year to six months, with extensions given only under very specific and limited conditions.Anyone ordered deported or removed from the US must surrender within 30 days or forfeit any right to appeals or sanctuary.In addition, schools reporting requirements have changed as well.Another change was using Florida as a testing ground to allow police to detain people for immigration violations. In the past, this was left up to federal agents. If the testing is successful, other states will follow Florida’s lead. Schools will be required to use the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) to issue documents to foreign students and report information to the INS. SEVIS is an internet-based system that lets the government, and schools exchange information about foreign students and their dependents.The new regulations will require schools to report the following information to the INS:1. A student’s enrollment or failure to enroll at the school;2. The start date of the student’s next term or session;3. A student dropping below a full course of study without authorization;4. Any other failure to maintain status or complete the program;5. A change of the student’s or dependent’s legal name or address;6. Any disciplinary action taken by the school against the student as a result of the student being convicted of a crime; and7. A student’s graduation prior to the listed program end date.The preliminary enrollment period to enable INS approved schools to begin using SEVIS to accept foreign students began on July 1, 2002. (Wipf, 2007)Two groups who are very upset with many of the immigration changes are the Filipinos and the Mexicans. Both groups have a history of migrating to the US in search of work and a better life for themselves and their families.For the Mexicans Sept 11th means that the focus that was on gaining amnesty for the current illegal Mexican immigrants is now on the prevention of terrorist cells entering the country. Thepossibility of working visa programs for the unskilled Mexican worker has been abandoned in favor of heightened security of the borders.;245i would allow illegal aliens to upgrade their status to permanent resident if they had a sponsor.  Congress added the amendment to its border security bill but the Senate removed it. It has not been reinstated at this time. The Filipino community is, along with the Mexican community, one of the groups who use sponsorship to enter the United States and gain residency.Both groups are very family oriented and this increases the already overwhelming task of bringing family members to the US.International tracking systems have also been discussed such as national identification cards and/or fingerprints. This would make it virtually impossible to create a fake identity or obtain immigrant status through deceptive means. This, of course, would have no affect on the illegal aliens.One of the changes with a more wide spread effect is the cancellation of the J-visa waiver for physicians. Foreign students who come to the U.S. for medical training are required to go back to their home countries for 2 years before they can return to the U.S. The J waiver program for physicians made it possible for them to stay if they would agree to work in medically underserved areas, obtain such an offer and got appropriate government sponsorship. (Wipf, 2002) This affects not only the doctors themselves but the areas that desperately need doctors and medical treatment.The biggest change is the reformation of INS into another agency with two separate departments. The main agency is the Agency for Immigration Affairs and is under the Department of Justice. The two bureaus are the Bureau of Immigration Services and Adjudications, which would take over all immigration applications/processing and status/record keeping functions and The Bureau of Immigration Enforcement, who would handle control and;prosecution of immigration violations and legal matters. Critics feel that this was more a rearrangement than a reform but it has not had time to prove or disprove its worth.Immigrants of all nationalities are finding it harder to not only enter the country but to stay. This is includes those ethnic groups who are not of Middle Eastern descent. After September 11th almost all immigrants were under suspicion by the citizens of the United States.Anyone coming from the Middle East or of Middle Eastern descent was subjected to more severe prejudices and accusations. The media has been full of the reports of Middle Eastern men being asked to get off airplanes because the flight crew and other passengers are afraid of them. These men, in particular, are being singled out for baggage and body searches. State and local police are stopping and questioning “swarthy”-appearing men as never before.There has been a new rash of hate crimes against Arabs, Muslims, Sikhs, or anyone thought by the uninformed vigilante to be a potential terrorist or sympathizer. For example, there are reports in New York City of attacks on Yemeni-owned delis, the shooting of a Sikh cabdriver, and assaults of Arabs and Pakistanis on subways and on the street. Police are discovering a disproportionately high number of such incidents since September 11th, and not only in New York. (Dean, 2001)Revalidation for nationals with legal visitor status from Iraq, Iran, Syria, Libya, Sudan, North Korea and Cuba may not be automatic anymore. They also are unable to apply for a new visa while abroad. Instead they must return to their home country and apply from there. Many people of Arab, Muslim and South Asian descent have been detained for little or no reason. Arrests of these groups increased dramatically due to a zero tolerance for even minor infractions.;;The President has stated that tougher border patrols are not the answer. He is suggesting a temporary work program that will allow lawful employment for people wanting to enter the United States for work purposes.The condition for the temporary work program would be:The program must be truly temporaryAmerican workers must be given priority over temporary workersParticipation should fluctuate with market conditionsThese are ideas that may help ease the burden of border patrol and national guards but they do not address the issue of the thousands of illegal and current legal aliens in the United States. They also do nothing to address the issue of racial profiling, hate crimes or jeopardized civil liberties by the citizens of Middle Eastern descent.The men who suicide bombed the twin towers were of Middle Eastern origin and had come to this country under false pretenses. It becomes a complex process as to who is a threat and who is not. Do we use the ethnic approach and assume anyone from a suspect country has an ulterior motive? Or do we assume that anyone clean cut and studious is automatically not a suspect for terrorism?The President also has ideas on how to screen the future citizens already residing in our country.A Rational Middle Ground Between A Program Of Mass Deportation And A Program Of Automatic Amnesty.  It is neither wise nor realistic to round up and deport millions of illegal;;immigrants in the United States. But there should be no automatic path to citizenship.  The President supports a rational middle ground founded on the following basic tenets:·         No Amnesty.  Workers who have entered the country illegally and workers who have overstayed their visas must pay a substantial penalty for their illegal conduct.·         In Addition To Paying A Meaningful Penalty, Undocumented Workers Must Learn English, Pay Their Taxes, Pass A Background Check, And Hold A Job For A Number Of Years Before They Will Be Eligible To Be Considered For Legalized Status.·         Any Undocumented Worker Seeking Citizenship Must Go To The “Back Of The Line.”  The program should not reward illegal conduct by making participants eligible for citizenship ahead of those who have played by the rules and followed the law.  Instead, program participants must wait their turn at the back of the line. (Bush, 2007)People will never forget September 11th and the terrible loss of life but it was a loss of innocence and security as well. If reforms are not made to improve both national security and immigration policy then all those people will have died for nothing.Many Muslims who have lived in the US either all their lives or for a few years were as shocked and appalled as the rest of the nation and yet they remain under suspicion to the point of being ostracized at times.;;Other ethnic groups are suffering either from imposed rules that limit their activities within the US or by losing the interest of the government regarding their individual interests. Everyone suffers in a tragedy of this magnitude and the trust is harder to extend to others. This is especially true for those who are different or have come from another country.I have researched and written this essay using the content analysis method. I chose this method over an ethnographic approach in order to utilize the massive amounts of coverage on this subject. Content analysis is useful because it enables the researcher to get many versions of an issue and form their own opinion of the matter.I believe the ethnographic approach would have been less effective in this case due to the need for personal interviews. Not only would it be difficult to locate enough people but it would lack the information regarding many of the new immigration laws since many people may not be fully informed of them.

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