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Carbohydrates belong to the four classes of macromolecules that the human body needs.

  They have the chemical formula [CH2O]n where n is a numerical value from 3 to 6.  The main function of carbohydrates is to store energy. Usually, carbohydrates are made up of one or more monosaccharide (chains of sugars). The factors that determine the composition and structure of a carbohydrate are the length of the chain, manner of linking, and the type of monosaccharide in its chain.

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Carbohydrates, like monosaccharide, with simple structures are easy to break down which means that it only requires less energy and less time for it to “release” the energy it stores. Consequently, those which have more complex structures, like disaccharides and polysaccharides, are more difficult to break down.Lipids are organic compounds which are nonpolar.

They do not have positive charge or negative charge concentrations which make them insoluble in substances that are polar (e.g. water). Although some have polar bonds, the polar property is overruled by its molecular orientation like ammonium nitrate which results in a dipole cancel. Like the carbohydrates, the main function of lipids is energy storage.

  The more complex its structure is, the more difficult it is to break down and have its energy released.The proteins are organic compounds present in the hair, skin, and other areas of the human body. Basically, the proteins in our body are responsible for regulating and protecting the body chemistry, however, they have different biological functions.

Their functions are determined by their shape and structures (primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary).  The different classifications of proteins are the enzymatic proteins (pepsin in the stomach), transport proteins (hemoglobin in blood which has four peptide chains, in its quaternary structure), structural proteins (collagen in cartilage which has a large and complex quaternary structure and a primary structure that has a repetitive pattern of amino acids), storage proteins, hormonal proteins (insulin in the pancreas), receptor proteins, contractile proteins (myosin and actin in muscles), and defensive proteins (antibodies).

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