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SQL is the abbreviation of Structured Query Language. SQL is a language that is used in computers to retrieve the data and then to manage that data for different database creation and control. ISO and ANSI have worked on the standardization of SQL. IBM was the first who developed SQL in 1970s. Raymond F. Boyce and Donald D. Chamberlin are the pioneers for the development of the first version of this language. SEQUEL was the name that was given initially to SQL. The function of the initial version was to work for System R. that was the original product of IBM for relational database management. The initial version was designed in a way to facilitate the process of manipulation and retrieval of data that were stored in System R. Then the formal standardization of SQL took place in 1986 by American National Standards Institute (ANSI). International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards has standardized the subsequent versions of the language (Oppel, p. 90-91).Vendors of SQL database management system (DBMS) have given several variations to the originally designed SQL whose purpose was to serve as declarative query and to manipulate data language. The variations by DBMS include different procedural constructs, statements involving control-of-flow and types of user-defined data. Several extensions in the language also took place. SQL Persistent Stored Modules (SQL/PSM) were included in the basic part of the SQL language after the release of SQL 1999 standard.Though SQL was original designed to retrieve and manipulate the data from the relational database, the language can also serve as a platform for object-oriented and procedural programming and with the help of DBMS involving other languages. There are different elements that are involved in the sub-division of the SQL language. These elements include:Statements: The statements element affects data or schemas. Statements are able for the control of flow of different programs, sessions, and transactions.Queries: Queries are responsible for the retrieval of data on the basis of particular criteria.Expressions: Expressions are able for the productions of scalar values. They can also produce tables in which rows and columns are present. Those rows and columns contain data in them.Predicates: In predicates, specific conditions are specified that SQL three-value logic can evaluate.Clauses: They are optional in certain cases. They are basically the constituent parts present in different queries and statements.Whitespace: The code of SQL is made easy to format by ignoring the whitespaces from the SQL statements and queries (ANSI/ISO/IEC, p. 1).SQL also receives criticism from various theorists because since its development the SQL has been widely declared as the language that is specifically designed for the use with SQL databases. It is criticized that the basic features of the SQL that were used for relational databases actually violated the relational model that was used in the management of database (Oppel, p. 90-91).ConclusionSQL has been proved as a very useful language to retrieve and manage the relational database. Despite serious criticism on it, the SQL is growing to bring convenience in the computer world.  Works CitedOppel, Andy. Databases Demystified. San Francisco, CA: McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, (2004): pp. 90-91.ANSI/ISO/IEC International Standard (IS). Database Language SQL—Part 2: Foundation (SQL/Foundation). 1999. 

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