Spammers are sneaky. They harvest e-mail addresses from the Internet using a variety of techniques, such as guessing addresses at random or taking addresses from webpages. Spammers often use fake or stolen credit card information to pay for the initial costs of sending out spam. E-mail spammers abuse and use up human and physical resources without shouldering the full burden of the cost of the used resources.Phishing fraud is the worst problem associated with e-mail spamming. Phishers send fake e-mails made to look like they came from trusted individuals or institutions such as banks, online payment services like PayPal®, or subscription services. These e-mails ask for sensitive information like credit cards numbers, social security numbers, and passwords, which the phisher will use to perform unauthorized transactions and to steal from the victim’s accounts.Phishing causes substantial financial losses. In mid 2004, the cost of phishing attacks in the United States was estimated to be $1.2 billion per year. This has more than doubled in 2006. Another problem is the lawsuits that consumers will file against companies that don’t go out of their way to protect their clients. The responsibility for losses due to phishing attacks is frequently placed on financial institutions. Many banks will choose to cover all phishing losses to protect their customers.According to some estimates, in 2002, $8.9 billion was lost by organizations worldwide due to lost productivity and the consumption of IT resources and help-desk time. This figure rose to $20.5 billion in 2003, and is expected to reach over $190 billion in 2007.Spam is a huge time waster and distraction. Junk e-mail comprises about two-thirds of all e-mail sent over the Internet. E-mail spam is damaging because many business use e-mail for regular correspondence with their clients and for communication within the organization itself. Especially for businesses, struggling through a lot of e-mail spam is time wasting and sidetracks workers from the real job. Because of this, some businesses may opt to forego e-mail and instead resort to more cumbersome methods of communication, even with clients. Spam e-mail (or junk e-mail) makes using e-mail unreliable and unprofitable for businesses.