Skepticism is a doubting or questioning attitude, often associated with the doubting or questioning attitude toward religion (“Skepticism”). Specifically, it is has been thought to be a philosophical movement because it necessarily needs inquiry in order to attain the required certainty. It should noted that in skepticism there is no absolute knowledge and therefore an inquiry is needed to support a certain claim (Atheists). In other words, skepticism is being used by many philosophers to find the right matters that needs to have an evidence in order to have a right decisions that is being based in logic and sound reasoning (Jackson).Skepticism is based on simple method: doubt and inquiry (Jackson).
The idea is neither accepts claims nor dismisses them; it is all about obtaining a particular question for a particular phenomena and providing a test for have an evidence to prove the said occurrence. The purpose of having doubt on a certain thing is for have to have a good conclusion that will determine if that particular phenomena have to be accepted without a particular evidence or it has to be rejected because of having no strong evidence (Jackson). Therefore, inquiry is needed in order to search for the truth. If a particular claim has to be checked, strong evidence is in need in order for the claim to be accepted. Because of this method, it is said that skepticism is an attitude.
A critical thinker should not just accept claims just because others have the authority, insight, testimony etc. but they should have evidence that will prove that particular claim before having any predictions or sayings (Carroll).Thus, those philosophical skeptics must see first any evidence before believing in any certain things around them. Others have still doubt on the miraculous things that happens, existence of aliens and others (Carroll).Some philosophers like Socrates, Hobbes, Berkeley, Descartes, and Hume have this critical attitude towards skepticism. Socrates for example, his contribution to the history was to stimulate people to think for themselves rather than to teach for the things that they do not know (Carroll). Although it is not a systematic doctrine, however, it is a good practice for every person to think critically for a better way of life not asking for any help.
He or she must be the one to resolve or to know the reason why it is happening or how it is happen. For Hobbes, his worked was marked from the religious emphasis that was entirely base on comparing, and contrasting views of recognized authorities. However, Rene Descartes rejected his work because all Descartes want was to apply all the inductive methods of science particularly mathematics to philosophy. Because of this, he made his contribution to math particularly analytic geometry and calculus and made modern empirical science possible (Carroll). Berkeley however argued that the only things that we can observe are our sensations and these are in the minds of every person because there is no evidence that will prove that there is an existence of what other called other world. Lastly and one of the most important figures in the history of skepticism is David Hume (Carroll). Because for Hume, there is no logical relationship or justification for believing that any two events are being connected by cause and effect for making any inference for the future.
People only depend on experiences in forming beliefs about anything that was not directly perceive and whenever in making predictions about the future.Skepticism is very useful tool in making inferences on different issues that will surely benefit everyone like in their personal life, their business, and other concerns. The only important is that people should have the knowledge in applying the rules of logic and reason possessing a critical thinking in order to have inference based on the gather evidences (Jackson).