The region is located at the central part of the country between longitude 330 27 55 and 35026″ East also 3052 and 7039 South of Equator. The regional bounds six region namely Arusha in the north Dodoma (east) Mbeya and Iringa (South) and Tabora and Shinyanga in the north and North West respectively. ADMINISTRATION The region has 49. 342 sq Kms divided in three (3) districts, which are Iramba, Singida and Manyoni. It is further divided into division and wards. There are 21 divisions, 85wards and 346 villages. CLIMATE The region receives rainfall of between 500 mm and 800 mm per annum.Rain season commences in November to April. The dry season covers all months from May to October. The region forms part of the semi- arid central zone of Tanzania which experiences low rainfall and short rainy seasons which are often erratic with fairly wide spread drought in one year out of four. Total rainfall ranges from 500mm to 800mm per annum with high geographical, seasonal and annual variation. There are two rather well defined seasons, the short rainy season during the months of December to March or sometimes goes to April and the long dry season from April to November.The wetter areas in Singida region are along the escarpment near Kiomboi in Iramba district and in the south-west of Manyoni district near Rungwa, where the long -term mean annual rainfall exceeds 800mm. The mean annual rainfall is in the range of 600mm to 800mm over large areas of Iramba and Singida districts. On the eastern side of Manyoni district near the Bahi Swamp and the Rift Valley depression of Mgori and Shelui divisions lies the drier area in the region where the mean annual rainfall is less than 550mm.The regional mean annual average rainfall is 700mm. The temperatures in the region vary according to altitude but generally range from about 15°C in July to 30°C during the month of October. Moreover, temperature differences are observed between day and night and may be very high with hot afternoons going up to 35°C and chilly nights going down to 10°C. Winds follow a monsoonal pattern being north-easterly during the months of November to March and south-easterly for the rest of the year (dry season).In May to October, the winds are usually dry and contribute to the semi-aridity of the region. The fact that maximum wind velocities coincide with the period of greatest water deficiency underlines the climatic impact of these winds on moisture losses and hence desertification. POPULATION According to the 1988 population census, there was 791814 population. The growth rate was estimated at 2. 5 population distribution by ages suggest that there are many children of below 15 years. This category from 46% of the entire population in the region. ECONOMIC CTIVITIESEconomically, the major sectors fund in the region are agriculture (b oth crop production and animal husbandry) commerce and small industries. Food crops grown are millet, sorghum, maize, cassava sweet potatoes paddy and beans cash crops include sunflower, cotton, finger millet groundnuts and onions. AGRICULTURE As it is the case in many regions in the country agriculture is the main stay economic activity. Which provides employment to over 90% of the total working population in the region. There is about 1,134,400 hectare suitable for growing various types of crops.Common crops in this region are tropical crops, mostly cereals and fibrous. Out of all this Arable land only 280,000 hectare equivalent to 24. 7% is currently utilized for both food crops and cash production. Agriculture sector contributes around 60% to the region coffer. Other contributions and their percentages include livestock (11%), natural resources (8%), commerce and others 8% respectively, industries 4% and mining 1%. Singida region is one of the leading producer of Sunflower in the country. Production per year is estimated to be 183,460 tones.To boost sunflower production investors are invited to invest in sunflower cultivation, and oil processing (double refinery). Land is available in the region. The crop is organically grown and no artificial fertilizers and insecticides are needed. INDUSTRIES The region is among the few with n industrial development regardless of ample raw material available. The only available industries are small scale industries usually processing industries (ginning) deploying simple technology that cannot meet the ever -increasing consumer demand.The industrial census survey conducted in 1989 that there were 287 registered industries with production capacity valued at Tshs. 1. 7bn/= per annum. However, of late a number has increased due to the advent of such oil milling factories. To date there are about 11 such industries in the region and with exception of one that deals with cotton oil milling the rest are involved in sunflower. Because of low technology and small capacity they are seasoned and hire labour on casual basis.Although same industries have succeeded to bring in new cash crop (non-traditional), (sunflower) supply elasticity has not proportionally responded. Reasons for this range from poor farming methods, poor seed selection, poor farm management and exogenous factors like natural hazards. Also production of the crop and had not offered required incentives to peasants. Price instability and market unreliability to other area account for his poor response. Most of these industries are individually owned by indigenous or/and in partnership with foreigner. Few of them are owned by cooperative.The sector has all potentially in the region given the existing unexploited natural resources. After the completions of Singida – Manyoni railway branch the major transport obstacle is now the thing of the past. LIVESTOCK This region boast of having a good number of livestock (number of varieties and number of hard). Animal found in the region includes cattle (both indigenous and improved -hybrid), goat sheep, chicken, pig and donkey. The sector contributes around 11% of regional income. About 60% of the income from beef 30% from chicken and 10% from milk product.Also livestock offers good farmyard manure, which is now in use after the efforts by the regional leadership to change farming practicing practices. It is estimated that about 90% of all livestock indigenous and a mere 10% belong to the hybrid group. REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE Roads. A network of road in the region depends on the type of road. They range from tarmac road, modern roads and dirty and dusty (usually feder road). The region has 105. 5 km road length of tarmac or 3. 39% of total road network, leaving out the Dodoma-Mwanza and Singida-Arusha highways, 687. km of molem roads or 21. 5% and 2534. 5 kms dirty feeder roads or 75% of total road network. Railways The Central line railway passes across the region through Kintiku, Makutopora, Saranda, Manyoni and Itigi others are Aghondi, Kitaraka and Kilangasi. There is also a branch of railway from manyoni to the region headquarter- Singida. This is good transport alternative for all commodities to and from the region. This line has solved the then chronic transport problem existed before. The line is passable throughout the year. AirwaysThere is commercial airway service apart from small private airstrips for simple and emergence tasks like flying doctors and the likes. There are three such airstrips at Manyoni, two in Singida district and two in Iramba. Energy and power supply Electricity The region is connected to the National Grid that goes as far as Shinyanga, Mwanza and Mara to the north. All of three districts have recently been provided with the service. The sole electricity supply (Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited – Tanesco) has plan to harness wind electric power to be established at Singida urban.