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The Indians were the first people to inhabit America. Their settlements ranged across the Western Hemisphere and were built on many sites where modern cities now rise. Because of European Colonization in the 1500s they lost most of their land and were markedly displaced. After the American Revolution the new American government hoped to maintain peace with the Indians on the frontier. The US government started to ignore the treaties and the Indian rights. The concerns of white landowners were considered above the interests of the Indians.The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by president Andrew Jackson, on 28th May 1830.  The Indians were evicted out of Georgia and had to embark upon a brutal and deadly trip to the area which is the present-day Oklahoma, a journey which they called the “Trail of Tears.” Almost 4,000 of the 16,000 migrating Indians died during the journey. Seminoles under Osceola unsuccessfully resisted removal from their homes. The Seminole villages were destroyed and their crops were burned (“Seminole Wars”, par. 6). The suffering which resulted from Indian Removal was aggravated by poor administration, inadequate measures taken to provide for the emigrants, and failure to protect Indian legal rights before and after emigration.Most American Indians reluctantly but peacefully complied with the terms of the removal treaties, often with bitter resignation. Some groups, however, went to war to resist the implementation of removal treaties. This resulted in two short wars; the Black Hawk War of 1832 and the Second Creek War of 1836 (Wallace 31). The Untied States govenrment often promised food, finacial and medical aid and schools to the Indians but these were often not fulfilled. Threatened with starvation, this conflict came to an end on August 14th 1842 but no peace treaty was ever signed and the US stopped subjugating the Seminoles and left them in peace (“Seminole Wars”, par. 7).Works CitedWallace, Anthony F.C. The Long, Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993.”Seminole Wars.” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Apr 2006, 11 Apr 2006, <>

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