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Check the following paragraphs for unity. If a paragraph has unity, write U in the blank. If not, write the number of the sentence that does not belong in the paragraph. Paragraph 1 __5 SENTENCES During the sweltering Miami summer of 1965, a worried football coach helped create the world’s most popular sports drink. (2) The coach asked University of Florida scientist Tom Cade why so many players got sick in the heat, losing up to 18 pounds in one game. (3) Cade knew the athletes were losing vital water and minerals, so he mixed salt and potassium into a balancing drink. 4) After players spit out the first, foul-tasting samples, Cade’s wife suggested adding lemon juice and sweetener.(5) The rest Florida Gators stopped wilting and roared into a winning streak. (7) The new drink was named in is history. (6) Sipping the new beverage, the their honor. (8) Other Florida teams are the Hurricanes and the Seminoles. (9) Today 8 million bottles of Gatorade are consumed daily. Paragraph 2 ____U__(1) Technology enables people like the famous physicist Dr. Stephen Hawking to continue working despite serious physical disabilities. 2) For more than 45 years, Dr. Hawking has lived with Lou Gehrig’s disease, which attacks the muscles, but his brilliant mind works perfectly. (3) He can no longer walk, speak, or feed himself. (4) Nevertheless, a high-tech wheelchair with computer attachments allows him to continue his research and stay in touch with friends and colleagues around the world. (5) His computer is hooked up full-time to the Internet. (6) To speak, he chooses words displayed on the computer screen, and then an electronic voice machine pronounces each word. (7) A pressure-sensitive joystick even lets Dr.Hawking make his way through traffic. (8) In his home, infrared remote controls operate doors, lights, and his personal entertainment center. (9) He has three children with his first wife, Jane, and one grandchild. (10) Dr. Hawking continues to search for new ways to overcome his problems through technology. Paragraph 3 2 SENTENCS __(1) Across the country, thousands of college students and others are attending or performing poetry at “poetry slams. ” (2) A poetry slam is a competitive event in which participants perform one original poem before an audience. 3) With words, rhymes, and dramatic skill as their only tools, these fast-talking bards have just three minutes to win over the audience. (4) After each performance, judges selected from the audience give a numerical score, usually from 1 to 10. (5) Gymnastics competitions are judged using a similar ten-point scoring system. (6) Although most slammers would love to win first prize, they say that poetry slams also allow them to express their deepest thoughts, boost self-esteem, hone their English skills, and connect with a community of people who “speak from the heart. (7) Poetry slams are gaining popularity as schools, arts organizations, and groups of young writers start poetry clubs or sponsor contests.(8) Now, as online videos of the winning performances reveal the power of poetry slams, the excitement has spread worldwide. Chapter 26 PRACTICE 4: REVIEW Cross out any prepositional phrases in each of the sentences below. Then either circle each subject and underline each verb or highlight the subject and verb in different colors. * 1. Do you watch videos on YouTube? * 2. This hugely popular website grew quickly out of an invention by three friends. 3. One night, Steve Chen shot a video of his pals Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim. * 5. Surprisingly, the three buddies could find no easy way of sharing this video online. * 6. Their solution was a video-sharing website. * 7. Their friends loved it and inspired the young men to launch YouTube in 2005. * 8. Within two years, YouTube had attracted millions of visitors and millions of dollars from investors. * 9. Very easily, users can view or post videos on the site. * 10. Today, YouTube’s millions of videos inspire creativity, news reporting by everyday people, and some engaging craziness.Chapter 31 practice 2, 3, and 4 The first sentence of each pair that follows contains an irregular verb in the past tense. Fill in have or has plus the past participle of the same verb to complete the second sentence. * 1. Sean took plenty of time buying the groceries. Sean HAS TAKEN plenty of time buying the groceries. * 2. We sent our latest budget to the mayor. We HAVE SENTED our latest budget to the mayor. * 3. My daughter hid her diary. My daughter HAS HIDDEN her diary. * 4. The jockey rode all day in the hot sun. The jockeys HAVE RIDDEN all day in the hot sun. 5. Hershey, Pennsylvania, became a great tourist attraction. Hershey, Pennsylvania, HAS BECOME a great tourist attraction. * 6. The company’s managers knew about these hazards for two years. The company’s managers HAVE KNOWN about these hazards for two years. * 7. Carrie floated down the river on an inner tube. Carrie HAS FLOWN down the river on an inner tube. * 8. At last, our team won the bowling tournament. At last, our teams HAVE WON the bowling tournament. * 9. Larry and Marsha broke their long silence. Larry and Marsha HAVE BROKEN their long silence. 10. Science fiction films were very popular this past year. Science fiction films HAVE WERE very popular this past year. Practice 3 Complete each sentence by filling in have or has plus the past participle of the verb in parentheses. Some verbs are regular, some are irregular. * 1. Soccer has gained (gain) popularity in the United States ever since the 1994 World Cup was held in Pasadena, California. * 2. Sports fans have seen (see) the enthusiasm and passion that soccer arouses in such countries as Argentina, Brazil, Italy, and Portugal. * 3.The United States also has demonstrated (demonstrate) that it can win games in the biggest soccer competition in the world. * 4. The U. S. women’s soccer team have won (win) worldwide respect, earning Olympic gold medals in 2004, 2008, and again in 2012. * 5. The names of female stars like Abby Wambach have become (become) household words, along with great male players like David Beckham. * 6. Television coverage of matches have increased (increase); in fact, 56 percent of U. S. adults watched the thrilling 2011 Women’s World Cup final, in which Japan beat the United States in overtime. * 7.Major League Soccer has added (add) new franchises and recently have begun (begin) to attract stars from other countries. * 8. Significantly, the game has grown (grow) in popularity with suburban boys and girls. * 9. The parents of these children have encouraged (encourage) them to play a relatively safe but exciting sport. * 10. Experts say that this generation, which has fell (fall) in love with soccer, is changing the future of American athletics. Practice 4 Read these sentences carefully for meaning. Then circle the correct verb—either the past tense or the present perfect tense. * 1.He (directed, has directed) the theater group for many years now. * 2. Emilio lifted the rug and (has swept, swept) the dust under it. * 3. She (went, has gone) to a poetry slam last night. * 4. For the past four years, I (took, have taken) art classes in the summer. * 5. We (talked, have talked) about the problem of your lateness for three days; it’s time for you to do something about it. * 6. While he was in Japan, he (took, have taken) many photographs of shrines. * 7. She (won, has won) that contest ten years ago. * 8. The boxers (fought, have fought) for an hour, and they look very tired. 9. He (applied, has applied) to three colleges and attended the one with the best sociology department. * 10. The auto mechanics (had, have had) a radio show together for five years and are now extremely popular. Chapter 25 practice 5 Choose a paper you wrote recently. Select one of the proofreading strategies and try it out on this paper. Read with full attention, keenly watching for your personal error patterns. Put a check in the margin beside each error. Then correct them neatly above the lines. MARTIN LINDSTROM: What Your Supermarket Knows About You What Your Supermarket Knows About You” by Martin Lindstrom from TIME. Used by permission of Martin Lindstrom. | “The global financial crisis of 2008 hit consumers hard. Two years later, and they’re still reeling. Spending is down across the board, and even the more affluent are watching their pennies. In this fearful climate, retailers are applying ever more scientific and psychological tactics to lure them back. This was made clear to me on a memorable day in 2010 when I visited the laboratory outside of Chicago of one of the world’s largest consumer goods manufacturers. | | | After driving for nearly two hours, I reached my destination: a huge, imposing warehouse, with no outward signage, and a vast parking lot full of cars. A friendly receptionist checked my identity, had me sign all sorts of paperwork, and directed me through a door labeled Control Room. It was massive, and resembled images I’ve seen of NASA’s operations| | | | area—row upon row of people staring intently at hundreds of screens, only they were monitoring shoppers pushing carts around the aisles of a supermarket that had been designed to test their responses to different marketing strategies. Take a careful look at this lady,” said one of the monitors, pointing to a middle-aged woman on the screen. “She’s about to enter our latest speed-bump area. It’s designed to have her spend 45 seconds longer in this section, which can increase her average spend by as much as 73%. I call it the zone of seduction. ”| | | | This particular section of the market was different from the usual aisle. For a start, it had different floor tiles—a type of parquetry imparting a sense of quality. And instead of the cart gliding imperceptibly across nondescript linoleum, it made a clickety-clack sound, causing the shopper to instinctively slow down.The shopper’s speed was displayed at the top of the screen, and as soon as she entered the zone, her pace noticeably slowed. She began looking at a tall tower of Campbell’s soup, and then plucked a can off the top. Bingo! The sign in front of the display read: “1. 95. Maximum three cans per customer. ” Before the shopper slowly sauntered off, she had carefully selected three cans for her cart. | | | | Sophisticated as we may be, there’s no getting away from our more primitive survival technique of hoarding food to see us through lean times.So when we come across a deal that appeals to this ancient instinct, dopamine is released in our brain, giving us an instant rush of pleasure. My guide explained the exercise: “Yesterday we ran exactly the same offer, with two distinct differences. There was a dollar sign in front of the price, and no ‘Maximum 3 cans per customer’ line. We also gave the shoppers smaller-sized carts and changed the floor tiles. ” These seemingly small changes translated into big differences. On the first day of the experiment, only 1 in 103 purchased Campbell’s soup.Today, however, it seemed that 1 in every 14 succumbed—a sevenfold increase. | 4 | | | Over several months of experimenting with signage, the team noticed that using a dollar sign in front of the price decreases our likelihood of making the purchase. The dollar sign is a symbol of cost, rather than gain. Removing the sign helps the consumer sidestep the harsh reality of outstanding bills and longer-term financial concerns. No doubt the larger cart and the changed floor tiles also played their part, but what was most surprising was our need to hoard. The dictum allowing only three cans per customer sealed the deal. | | | The next time you go grocery shopping, take a look at the signs, the type of floor, and even the carts. Everything has been designed with an eye towards getting you to grab those three cans of something that was not on your list. The more attention you pay to the details, the more aware you’ll become of how you’re being manipulated. One thing is for certain; whoever made those three cans will be watching you just as closely. | | | ————————————————- Top of Form Bottom of Form ————————————————- Top of Form Bottom of Form

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