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The study was undertaken to determine if college students’ spiritual and religious beliefs impact their sexual attitudes. The researchers hypothesized that the two independent variables strongly determine a conservative attitude towards sex, and that the independent and dependent variables are positively related. They set out to prove or disprove these hypotheses by sampling 330 undergraduate students. In the beginning of the paper, the researchers pointed out that “research has shown that relatively high unsafe and risky behavior is practiced among students” (Beckwith & Morrow, 2005, p. x). Finally, Beckwith and Morrow, concluded that results supported the initial hypotheses made – “there was a negative relationship between spirituality and sexual attitudes” (2005, p. x).ReactionThe choice of the researchers of the factors to study – religiosity and spirituality – in relation to sexual attitude is commendable.  However, I am not so sure if the findings and conclusion made by the authors can withstand time. We live in a very dynamic world. In this world, beliefs – spiritual and religious – change as fast, too. Besides, people might believe that they are religious and spiritual, but act differently which is not uncommon. The findings of the research are also not surprising. I mean, although it is commendable that we now have a scientific proof that religious and spiritual beliefs affect sexual behavior, with the attitude of religious groups toward sex, it is not possible that the same attitude permeates their members. Lastly, it would have been nice if the researchers defined what conservative sexual behavior means.Kuh, G. D. & Gonyea, R. M. (2006). Spirituality, liberal learning, and college student engagement. Liberal Education, Winter 2006: 40-47.SummaryThe authors set out to answer the question ‘Does spirituality enhance or detract from liberal learning? – by examining students’ responses to the National Survey of Student Engagement or NSSE on NSSE’s database. More specifically, the study aimed to determine the correlation of students’ frequency of worship or in engaging in other spirituality-enhancing practices with several variables. These variables are degree of engagement in deep learning activities, interaction with students from different religious and political backgrounds, participation in community service and service-learning programs, perception that the campus environment is supportive, satisfaction with the college, and improvement in writing and speaking, self-understanding, and understanding others.ReactionThe study concluded that there is actually no point in worrying that “the resurgence in participating in worship, prayer, meditation, and related practices might have a dampening effect on liberal learning and engaging in other educationally purposeful activities” (Kuh & Gonyea, 2006, p. 46). This is so because the study found out the opposite. I think that it would have been more interesting if the authors presented their results according to each religious group. It is a fact that some religious groups have almost the same dogma , beliefs and practices, and that some also teach differently. The findings of the study might have been affected by this – some religious groups do encourage their members to adopt a more liberal view about the beliefs of other people and religious groups.

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