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Adolescence is a stage of human development which involves the maturation of a child into an adult.  This stage generally involves biological, social and psychological modifications within a child.  According to the World Health Organization, adolescence is that stage of human life that starts at age 10 and ends at approximately 19 years of age (Goodburn and Ross, 1995).  Oftentimes, the word teenager is used to depict an adolescent.  In psychology, adolescence is strongly correlated with perceptions of self-esteem and body image.  Self-esteem is generally related to an individual’s sense of value.  It can also denote the level of approval and appreciation an individual feels about his self.  Almost fifty years ago, the definition of self-esteem was simply equated to whether an individual carries a favorable or unfavorable way of thinking towards himself (Rosenberg, 1965).  Self-esteem is also believed to signify self-confidence in relation to specific personal issues.  It is thus regarded to operate like a trait and it usually lasts for a long time in individuals.  This psychological concept of self-worth is commonly correlated with psychological concepts such as personality, behavior, cognition and health.In order to measure self-esteem, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1965) may be employed.  This scale was designed to determine an adolescent’s total feeling of self-worth and self-acceptance, which have been earlier determined to serve as the standards of self-esteem.  The Scale consists of 10 questions to which the subject is asked to respond using four choices ranging from strongly disagreeable to strongly agreeable.  Another tool that facilitates measurement of self-esteem among adolescents is the self-efficacy scale designed by Froman and Owen (1991).  This scale aims to determine an adolescent’s degree of physical and mental health.During adolescence, a teenager is begins to re-identify himself in relation to his immediate surroundings, which is composed of his family, relatives, friends and immediate community and environment.  Such endeavor is generally difficult for a teenager to comprehend and to cope with, amidst all the rest of the changes that are occurring simultaneously in his body.  At the same time, an adolescent is also struggling to understand why specific behaviors from individuals in his immediate personal circle strongly influence how he personally feels and behaves.  During this developmental stage, an adolescent commonly feels that nobody understands how he personally feels, hence he feels isolated and his level of self-esteem drops.Another issue that adolescents deal with is self image, which is technically the mental impression an individual has of his self (Rogers et al., 1977).  Self image is generally unaffected to change, even during the developmental stage of adolescence, including those of height, weight, sex and intelligence.  Hence, an individual generally self-examines himself by asking himself questions about whether people will like him.  A more scientific description of self image is known as self-schema, which psychologically involves storage of information within an individual’s mind and this, in turn, influences that way the individual thinks and behaves.During adolescence, the issue of self image often affects the behavior and attitude of teenagers.  They are very concerned about how they look and would like to know how other people see them.  Any negative remark from another person about the way an adolescent dresses, speaks, or just something about his physical features with impact an adolescent psychologically (Olivardia et al., 2004).  Not only does a negative remark lower an adolescent’s self-esteem, it also lowers an adolescent’s self image.  Once a teenager experiences some form of damage to his self image, he tends to stay away from his any social interactions.  This is more evident during adolescence because these individuals tend to group together in school and spend a lot of time together after school.  An adolescent who chooses to spend time alone is generally affected by his low self image.  However, an adolescent does not understand that his withdrawal from social interactions with his peers tends to generate more negative feedback from his classmates and friends.  Once the adolescent finds out that his classmates and friends think that he is strange because he enjoys being alone, the adolescent further withdraws from interactions.  This kind of social setting often puts an adolescent at risk for teasing and bullying.There is a strong relationship between adolescence and his social world.  This connection is powerfully influenced by an adolescent’s level of self-esteem and self image.  It is regrettable to know that adolescents enter into such developmental stage that is characterized by cycles of ups and downs of self-esteem and self image.  However, this developmental stage is also known as the time when an individual learns more about his own identity, strengths and weaknesses.  Hence, it is important that adolescents are socially supported by his family and friends because any mental or psychological damaged that an adolescent experiences may strengthen or weaken the social identity of an adolescent.  More importantly, the chronological impact of social and psychological events plays a major role in the normal psychosocial behavior of an adolescent.  Hence a balance between independence and dependence with the rest of an adolescent’s development should be achieved in order to develop into a well-matured individual.

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