This paper will focus on on the vulnerable population of Mexican-American immigrants with chronic type II adult-onset diabetes and how this affects this turning population. The definition. description. stairss. and method of epidemiology will ease the treatment. Routine information such as demographics. nose count. birth. decease. and surveillance records. and research informations such as medical and wellness records. will convey pertinent information to the survey. The Epidemiologic Triangle and which type of epidemiology survey that was used will be explored.
A description of the relationship of the disease degrees of bar will reason the paper. Diabetes Type Two Adult Harmonizing to “Healthy People. gov” ( 2012 ) . “Diabetes occurs when the organic structure can non bring forth or react suitably to insulin. Insulin is a endocrine that the organic structure needs to absorb and utilize glucose ( sugar ) as fuel for the body’s cells. Without a properly operation insulin signaling system. blood glucose degrees become elevated and other metabolic abnormalcies occur. taking to the development of serious. disenabling complications.
Peoples from minority populations are more often affected by type II diabetes. Minority groups constitute 25 per centum of all grownup patients with diabetes in the United States and stand for the bulk of kids and striplings with type II diabetes” ( Overview ) . Many Mexican-Americans go undiagnosed for old ages. and it is merely when the pes ulcers show up and acquire infected that they go to their wellness attention professional and discover that they have diabetes. The Definition and Description of Epidemiology
Stanhope ( 2012 ) stated. “Epidemiology is the survey of the distribution and determiners of health-related events in human populations and the application of this cognition to bettering the wellness of communities. Epidemiology is a multidisciplinary endeavor that recognizes the complex interrelatednesss of factors that influence disease and wellness at both the single degree and the community degree ; it provides the basic tools for the survey of wellness and disease in communities” ( p. 282 ) . The rate of fleshiness among Mexican immigrants is rampant.
The impact of fleshiness has resulted in more healthcare-related unwellness such as bosom disease. vascular disease and diabetes. Many of the factors that lead to diabetes are socioeconomic every bit good as cultural. In order to head off this possible epidemic. the factors related to both the person and the community need to be recognized and explored. Covering with the health-related events and using the newfound cognition to assisting Mexican-Americans become healthier is a proactive step that will impact the hereafter health care system. The Stairss and Methods of Epidemiology
The stairss of epidemiology include surveillance of the event ; in this instance it is the aggregation and reading of informations as it is related to diabetes in Mexican-Americans. Some of the everyday information. such as nose count. birth. decease. and surveillance records are non available to the populace ( California Health Interview Survey. 2012 ) . . Therefore the informations necessary for this measure is limited to the recommended web sites for the California Health Interview Survey ( CHIS ) and the National Health Interview Survey ( NHIS ) . and the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System ( BRFSS ) . which can be used to garner pertinent informations.
The medical records and wellness records are besides non available to the general populace. so the reappraisal of research informations will be assimilated through the aforesaid web sites. Harmonizing to Preventing Chronic Disease ( 2007 ) . “Diabetes prevalence among Hispanics is about twice that among non-Hispanic Whites ( 5-8 ) . Consistent findings besides relate type II diabetes in the Hispanic community with fleshiness ( 5-7. 9 ) . low income degree ( 7-9 ) . low educational degree ( 7-9 ) . and low degree of wellness insurance ( 10 ) . all of which are extremely prevailing in the U. S. –Mexico boundary line part.
In fact. a turning organic structure of research suggests that diabetes is a far excessively common and quickly turning job among Mexican Americans populating on the U. S. side of the U. S. –Mexico boundary line ( 11 ) . Recent wellness surveies found that diabetes prevalence among Hispanics populating near the boundary line is more than twice the prevalence among non-Hispanics who live in the same part ( 12. 13 ) . These findings suggest to the public wellness community that diabetes is making epidemic proportions in the U. S. –Mexico boundary line part ( 14 ) ” ( Diabetes Hospitalization at the U. S. -Mexico Border ) .
Stanhope ( 2012 ) stated. “Epidemiologic methods are used to depict wellness and disease phenomena and to look into the factors that promote wellness or influence the hazard or distribution of disease. This cognition can be utile in planning and measuring plans. policies. and services. every bit good as in clinical determination making” ( p. 282 ) . Harmonizing to Preventing Chronic Disease ( 2007 ) . “In 2000. a study from CDC’s National Center for Health Statistics showed that diabetes was the 6th taking cause of decease in the United States: 25. 2 deceases per 100. 000 standard population ( 1 ) .
In add-on. in 2004. CDC’s National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion stated that more than 17 million Americans have diabetes and that 200. 000 people die each twelvemonth of complications associated with this status ( 2 ) ( Diabetes Hospitalization at the U. S. -Mexico Border ) . Epidemiology Triangle Stanhope ( 2012 ) stated. “Epidemiologic theoretical accounts explain the interrelatednesss between agent. host. and environment ( the epidemiologic trigon ) and the interactions of multilevel factors. exposures. and features ( causal web ) impacting hazard of disease” ( p. 82 ) . The host in this instance would be the Mexican-American whose personal traits and behaviours lead to the development of fleshiness. the agent is physical inaction and gluttony and deficiency of exercising. and the environment would be their societal and economic conditions that limit their exposure to proper wellness attention installations and cognition of the disease procedure combined with societal and cultural branchings. The Type of Epidemiology
The type of epidemiology used for this subject is descriptive because. as Stanhope ( 2012 ) stated. “Epidemiologists investigate the distribution or forms of wellness events in populations in order to qualify wellness results in footings of what. who. where. when. how. and why: What is the result? Who is affected? Where are they? When do events happen? This focal point is called descriptive epidemiology. because it seeks to depict the happening of a disease in footings of individual. topographic point. and time” ( p. 282 ) .
This type of epidemiology is used to find the extent of diabetes and how the quickly turning population of Mexican-Americans will impact the economic system and the hereafter of health care. The individual includes the hazard factors. instruction. business. ethnicity. diet and exercising. The topographic point is where the population is. the denseness. economic development along with nutritionary. and medical patterns. Time is. since the event took topographic point. age. and rhythms or tendencies that might impact the disease procedure. Levels of Prevention
The degrees of bar for diabetes include understanding of how Mexican-Americans position diabetes as a wellness issue. Establishing a knowing foundation from which to authorise and supply indifferent information will enable a people to integrate a healthier manner of life. Understanding how Mexican American immigrants view fleshiness in their cultural will enable wellness attention professionals to analyse certain beliefs and set up better plans to ease cognition that already be within in the community.
Education is a necessity in authorising Mexican Americans to better their life manner and integrate better nutrient picks and non allow alibis acquire in the manner of day-to-day exercising. Harmonizing to Lopez ( 2011 ) . “Food handiness is the 2nd sphere analyzed with respect to factors forestalling proper wellness. Respondents had the cognition of what a balanced diet includes ; it was the cost of geting the ‘healthy’ merchandises that prevented them from seting into pattern their cognition of proper wellness.
One illustration of non being able to pattern one’s cognition is embodied in an anecdote told to me by a non-profit group’s voluntary helping in nutrition instruction workshops. A authorities interpreter was explicating the 5-a-Day plan at a wellness and nutrition workshop. At the terminal of his talk a adult female stood up and stated. “5 a twenty-four hours? There are eight in my house. which equals 40 pieces of fruit! ” [ mentioning to the monetary value of 40 fruits and veggies ] . This anecdote to the full illustrates the current job.
It is non that Mexican immigrants are nescient of the biomedical ideals and criterions of wellness ; societal forces play a larger function in the individual’s ability to implement this idea” ( Food Affordability ) . Why is a piece of fruit so expensive? Why does an apple cost a dollar and a Happy Meal merely every bit much? Peoples know that fruit and vegetables are better for them than fast nutrient. Here in America where the handiness of fast nutrient is easier than healthy nutrient or no nutrient at all. I think that many immigrants don’t have a pick. It is easier to feed a household of eight with fried poulet from a fast nutrient concatenation than it is to cook it at place.
Another degree of bar was promoted by the CDC and harmonizing to Preventing Chronic Disease ( 2007 ) . “In 2000. to turn to the precedence wellness jobs of the population along the U. S. –Mexico boundary line. the U. S. –Mexico Border Health Commission ( USMBHC ) initiated a disease bar and wellness publicity plan called Healthy Border 2010 ( 15 ) . This plan is similar to the U. S. plan Healthy People 2010 ( 16 ) . of which the chief ends are to better the quality of wellness and increase the old ages of healthy life for all people. and to extinguish wellness disparities among population subgroups.
To turn to wellness issues at the boundary line. a panel of wellness experts sponsored by the USMBHC identified a set of wellness ends and established a 10-year plan to extinguish or minimise the effects of selected diseases and conditions in the boundary line region” ( Diabetes Hospitalization at the U. S. -Mexico Border ) . Decision The turning figure of Mexicanos in the United States is turning at six times the national norm harmonizing to ( El Nasser. 2004 ) . Hispanics surpassed inkinesss as the largest minority group in 2002. when their Numberss hit 38. 8 million” ( Census Projects Turning Diversity By 2050: Population Burst. Societal Shifts ) . At the rate the population is turning. the impact that type 2 diabetes big oncomings will hold on the national wellness attention system is traveling to be a major job. Poor entree to healthcare installations and instruction about the branchings of fleshiness taking to major health care issues. such as diabetes. are rampant among the Mexican-American immigrant population.
Food picks are limited to the socioeconomic conditions in which they live ; entree to fast nutrient is more readily available than fresh green goods. The job is non lack of cognition about diabetes ; it is the resources to alter the life style that are delinquent. Merely when we start turn toing safe vicinities in which people feel safe and have a sense of belonging and ownership can we get down turn toing exercising and diet. Change is hard. but we need to turn to the job now earlier diabetes becomes the figure one taking cause of decease in the United States.