Agro based industries like sugar, pulp, paper, nunneries; and value added industries like textile, garments, pharmaceutics, oil refineries, fertilizer and chemical industries are the major contributors for air pollution. Emission from Vehicles: One of the major sources of air pollution in urban areas of Bangladesh is due to the unburned fuel from two stroke engine vehicles. Dacha has been rated as one of the most polluted cities of the world. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission reports that automobiles in Dacha emit 100 keg lead, 3. 5 tons SUMP, 1. 5 tons SIS, 14 tons HCI and 60 tons CO in every day.
Effects; Severe environmental pollution is threatening human health and economic growth of Bangladesh. Air pollution mostly affects the urban children. Indoor air pollution is a greater threat to health than outdoor air pollution. Bangladesh could avoid 10,000 deaths and save between 200 and 500 million dollars a year if indoor air pollution in four major cities can be reduced to acceptable limits. Immediate effect of smoke inhalation causes headache, vertigo, burning sensation of the eyes, sneezing, nausea, tiredness, cough etc. Its long term effect may cause asthma and bronchitis.
Lead affects the regulatory, nervous and reproductive systems as well as affects kidney and liver including liver cancer or cirrhosis. Carbon monoxide hampers the growth and mental development of an expected baby. Nitrogen oxides cause bronchitis and pneumonia. Water Pollution Water pollution creates serious health hazard for Bangladesh. The dumping of municipal wastes, hospital wastes and toxic environmental discharges from mostly industries pollute both surface and ground water sources. The most dangerous threat emanating from environmental degradation is the arsenic contamination of ground water.
Sources; Industrial Waste and Effluent: The main industrial areas of Bangladesh are at Dacha, Chitchatting, Chula, and Bogart districts. The mostly contributing industries for water pollution are pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals, metal processing, food industry’, fertilizer, pesticides, dyeing and painting, textile, tannery etc. More than 200 rivers of Bangladesh directly or indirectly receive a large quantity of untreated industrial wastes and effluent. Everyday approximately 700 tanneries of Dacha city are discharging about 1 6,000 cubic meters of toxic wastes.
The Department of Environment (DOE) has listed , 176 factories that cause pollution throughout the country. Solid Waste and Sewage Disposal: The indiscriminate discharge of solid waste, domestic and hospital sewage are the major source of water pollution in Bangladesh. About 4,000 to 4,500 tons of solid wastes are generated daily and only half of the generated wastes are disposed of in low lying areas or into river water. These solid wastes are associated with the problems of littering on roads, spilling around the bins, clogging of drains, indiscriminate dumping on vacant plots and cause serious environmental pollution.
More than 500 hospitals and lining of Dacha city generate and release hazardous and toxic wastes without any treatment. Inadequate Sanitary Facilities: Inadequate sanitation facilities pose a serious environmental threat in Bangladesh. Dacha Water and Sewerage Authority (DASH) can serve only for 1 5 to 20% of city population. In absence of the sanitation and infrastructural services, 40% having septic tank and soak pit, 15% using pit latrines and 30% using open latrines. The sewage is mostly released into low-lying areas and river water in untreated manner causing great environmental hazards.